By I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond

Presents an account of what's identified in regards to the remotest geological a while, comprising chapters at the other kinds of proof touching on guy and his actual surroundings.

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Tensional rifting, subsidence and submergence were also occurring on the African side of the Mediterranean. We have already seen1 that in Ethiopia and Yemen great outpourings of lava occurred in late Cretaceous times and we associated this with the rifting that separated India from Afro-Arabia and created the Arabian Sea. Doubtless these movements extended into the Gulf of Aden, and possibly the first initiation of the Red Sea rift may have occurred as early as this. But the important disturbances came later and like those of central Europe were associated with doming.

V, 5, part 2, figs. 171 and 176. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 MODERN SEAS, RIVERS AND MOUNTAINS 27 But more important than these criticisms is the essential truth of King's view. The mountains we see are only rarely the mountains created by the fold movements that gave them their complex internal structures. The immense destructive achievements of Tertiary erosion must not be underestimated. Even where fold movements succeeded each other at intervals too short for baselevelling to be accomplished, it is becoming clear that the course of the later folding and the nature of the mountain structures that we see today were greatly influenced by the fact that the older folds had been largely eroded away and the original continuity of the more competent strata had been destroyed in the interval.

Nowhere are such beds seen in their original form or with their original relationships, and room for doubt about their interpretation is bound to exist. Especially is this true of the Pennine Alps, where associated granite gneisses have been interpreted both as portions of an underlying (Hercynian) continental basement and as intrusions belonging to the Alpine orogenesis itself. However this may be, it is clear that the great bulk of the Tethyan sediments were laid down on continental foundations which became so deeply buried that in effect they were depressed to depths comparable with those of the oceans.

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