By S. Sumathi
This publication explores the strategies of information mining and knowledge warehousing, a promising and flourishing frontier in database structures, and offers a vast, but in-depth assessment of the sector of knowledge mining. information mining is a multidisciplinary box, drawing paintings from components together with database expertise, man made intelligence, laptop studying, neural networks, data, trend attractiveness, wisdom established structures, wisdom acquisition, details retrieval, excessive functionality computing and information visualization.
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Physical organization refers to changes in indices, ﬁle organizations, etc. 7. What is meant by Physical and Logical data independence? In logical data independence, the conceptual schema can be changed without changing the external schema. In physical data independence, the internal schema can be changed without changing the conceptual schema. 8. What are some disadvantages of using a DBMS over ﬂat ﬁle system? 9. What are the steps to design a good database? 10. What is Database? Give an example.
Example The examples of single value attribute are age of a person, Roll number of the student, Registration number of a car, etc. Representation of Single Value Attribute in ER Diagram Multivalued Attribute In the case of multivalue attribute, more than one value will be associated with that attribute. Representation of Multivalued Attribute in ER Diagram Examples of Multivalued Attribute 1. Consider an entity EMPLOYEE. An Employee can have many skills; hence skills associated to an employee are a multivalue attribute.
Support for multiple views −→ Necessary for security reasons. – Data redundancy means duplication of data. Data redundancy will occupy more space hence it is not desirable. – Data independence means independence between application program and the data. The advantage is that when the data representation changes, it is not necessary to change the application program. – Data inconsistency means diﬀerent copies of the same data will have different values. – Centralizing the data means data can be easily shared between the users but the main concern is data security.