By D. Virgil Alfaro III MD, Peter E. Liggett MD, William F. Mieler MD, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado MD, Rama D. Jager MD MBA FACS, Yasuo Tano MD

A well known workforce of retina surgeons offers promising new advancements in age-related macular degeneration, with emphasis at the most important advances some time past 5 years. content material addresses all points of administration, together with anatomy, body structure, and pathophysiology; imaging of the macula in age-related macular degeneration; prevention measures and therapy; remedy; and destiny instructions. Abundantly illustrated and beautifully geared up, this ebook serves as a great reference and textbook.

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Under normal physiologic conditions, the pO2 at the inner portion of the photoreceptors approaches 0 mm Hg in the dark and somewhat higher in light. One possible reason for this design may be to lower the oxygen tension in the outer retina to decrease the amount of oxidative damage there, due to the inherently high susceptibility to oxidative damage conferred by the extraordinarily high proportions of both polyunsaturated fatty acids and retinoids in the outer segment membranes. In measurements of the constitutive secretion of VEGF in the eye, the RPE makes a prominent amount of VEGF (147).

Newborn rats were placed in an incubator and received oxygen exposure that was altered between 40% and 80% every 12 hours. Other groups were maintained for the same length of time, in either constant 80% oxygen or room air. Oxygen levels were maintained ±2%. Ink perfusion, ADPase staining, and light microscopy were used for evaluation. Rats maintained on a 40/80% oxygen cycle had more neovascularization, although rates maintained on 80% alone also had significant neovascularization (82). With defined parameters for hyperoxic exposure, animal models of neovascularization are reliably created.

1996;103:427438. 19. Van der Zypen E, Fankhauser F, Raess K, et al. Morphologic findings in the rabbit retina following irradiation with the freerunning neodymium-YAG laser. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986;104:1,0701,077. 38. Campochiaro PA, Chang M, Ohsato M, et al. Retinal degeneration in transgenic mice with photoreceptor-specific expression of a dominant-negative fibroblast growth factor receptor. J Neurosci. 1996;16:1,679-1,688. 20. Frank RN, Das A, Weber ML. A model of subretinal neovascularization in the pigmented rat.

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