By Hida T., Hida T. (eds.)

This quantity collects the articles awarded on the 3rd foreign convention on "The Navier-Stokes Equations: thought and Numerical Methods", held in Oberwolfach, Germany. The articles hide such themes within the Navier-Stokes thought as: basic boundary stipulations; circulation external to a disadvantage; conical boundary issues; the controllability of strategies; compressible stream; non-Newtonian circulation; magneto-hydrodynamics; thermal convection; the interplay of fluids with elastic solids; the regularity of ideas; and Rothe's approach to approximation A computational method of evolutionary biology / Thomas S. Ray -- White-noise research in retinal body structure / Ken-ichi Naka and Vanita Bhanot -- White noise research with distinctive emphasis on functions to biology / Takeyuki Hida

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80 instructions). This usually corresponds to the size of the genome. This "membrane" is described as "semi-permeable" because while write privileges are protected, read and execute privileges are not. A creature may examine the code of another crea­ ture, and even execute it, but it can not write over it. Each creature may have exclusive write privileges in at most two blocks of memory: the one that it is born with which is referred to as the "mother cell", and a second block which it may obtain through the execution of the MAL (memory allocation) instruction.

In organic life, this is insured by natural imperfections in the replication of the informational molecules. However, one way in which digital "chemistry' 1 differs from organic chemistry is in the degree of perfection of its operations. In the computer, the genetic code can be reliably replicated without errors to such a degree that we must artificially introduce errors or other sources of genetic variation in order to induce evolution. 1 Mutations In organic life, the simplest genetic change is a "point mutation", in which a single nucleic acid in the genetic code is replaced by one of the three other nucleic acids.

4 45 Figure 5. Variation in evolutionary optimization under constant conditions. Based on a mutation rate of four generations per move mutation, all other parameters as in Fig. 4. The plots are otherwise as described for Fig. 4. Fig. 5 46 The increase in efficiency of the replicating algorithms is even greater than the decrease in the size of the code. The ancestor is 80 instructions long and requires 839 CPU cycles to replicate. 75-fold difference in efficiency. The algorithm of one of these creatures is listed in Appendix E.

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