By Gordon Martel

Invaluable compilation of essays protecting the foremost occasions of the 20 th century. status out from this total remarkable physique of labor are the contributions at the undertones and reasons of WW I (Martel's uniqueness) and 3 chapters on often-overlooked advancements resulting in WW II.

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Extra resources for A Companion to International History 1900–2001

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5 Europeans invariably exhibited different ideologies and methodologies in tackling the Cold War. At the outbreak of the Cold War, France and Britain sought to achieve an independent western Europe as a “third force” by utilizing the resources of Europe’s colonial possessions in Africa and the Middle East. It was important for them to recover their Great Power status, and such a third power bloc might become strong enough to withstand the Soviet monolith and to keep the Soviet–US confrontation at arm’s length.

With some notable exceptions, they also refrained from meddling in each other’s spheres of influence for fear that this might provoke the other side to embark on a general war – indeed, the Cuban missile crisis demonstrated the extreme danger of such meddling. Furthermore, Washington and Moscow had to some extent shared a political interest in avoiding responsibility for intensifying the Cold War, although they blamed each other for creating difficulties in the way of achieving world peace. Thus, mistrust, hostility, tension, cooperation, and competition were the tidal patterns of the Cold War.

A BIPOLAR WORLD While the Americans became trapped in the jungles of Southeast Asia, the Europeans saw an opportunity for détente in Europe. Nobody by then believed in the likelihood of Soviet military aggression. 36 By contrast western Europe had, in 1957, successfully created the European Economic Community (EEC), backed by a degree of stability on the basis of the division of Germany. The fi rst move toward détente came from President Charles de Gaulle of France. He wanted to reduce the United States’ control over western Europe and to create favorable conditions for pan-European cooperation.

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