By J. B. BURY, S. A. COOK, F. E. ADCOCK

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F Minos in the islands, were called Lcleges, admits, that when they occupied the mainland of Asia they took from Leleges and Pelasgoi mainly the lands which they held henceforth*. C. were the LycHnns. In IIr>mei% howevet^ the name of the Lydians is entirely unknown, their place beinj* taken 6 by the Maeonians Homer links Maeonia with Phrytjiu and in a simile of the Iliad speaks of the Maeonian or Ciirian woman staining ivory with red to he the cheek-piece of a bridle 7 In the tenth book of the Iliad Lycians, and Mysians, of .

From very early times it is probable that persons of all three racial types spoke Indo-European languages, and it is important to have a word which can be applied to speakers of the languages without any implication of race. For this, the simplest means is to designate them by a word which in most of the Indo-European (TroXios) 1. Wiros, languages indicates men For ancient times our knowledge of the peoples of Europe is derived entirely from Greek and Roman writers who, whatever their own racial origin, used languages which were Indo-European, But besides the Wiros there were, in early times, and indeed to some extent still are, speakers of other languages in Europe.

Second language which has disappeared is that of the Ligurians, whose habitat was said to be in the mountains above the gulf of Genoa, but of whom many modern writers have discovered traces over a far wider area in Gaul, Spain and Italy. Of the Ligurians we know very little. They lived like the Celts, but were of a different stock 2 The few inscriptions attributed to them are probably Celtic, and the statements of the ancients that they were a thin, wiry people, winning a hard living from a barren soil by agriculture in which their women did much of the work, is a, description that would apply to most highland peoples from A .

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