By Ryan P. Kilmer, Virginia Gil-Rivas, Richard G. Tedeschi, Lawrence G. Calhoun

On August 29, 2005, typhoon Katrina made landfall alongside the critical Gulf Coast sector of the USA. The hurricane and its aftermath led to the main serious, harmful, and dear traditional and unnatural catastrophe within the country s heritage as evidenced by way of the dimensions of the zone affected, the demise, the large destruction of estate, and the hundreds of thousands displaced. Over 2 years post-disaster, many households lived in transitority housing and had constrained entry to uncomplicated companies; so far, many proceed to fight to satisfy easy wishes. additionally, the psychological healthiness wishes of many survivors stay mostly unmet and disproportionately so for marginalized, disenfranchised segments of the affected inhabitants. The value of typhoon Katrina and the linked shortcomings in catastrophe making plans and reduction interventions have supplied psychological well-being and social provider pros, in addition to coverage makers, with severe details for the enhanced dealing with of destiny mess ups. the current quantity examines key classes realized and provides a blueprint for larger assembly the desires of youngsters, households, and groups post-disaster via well-timed, certain responses and interventions. greatly guided by means of a bioecological framework, it highlights major matters in post-disaster paintings; considers the variety of dangers, assets, and elements relating to post-disaster edition; emphasizes community-level provision of assets, prone, and helps; and offers actionable suggestions and functional purposes for destiny catastrophe preparedness, reaction, and restoration. The editors and individuals reviews with young children, caregivers, educators, and practitioners in Louisiana and Mississippi lend a compassionate standpoint to the research of study and additional underscore the importance of the options placed forth.

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Masten, A. , & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments. American Psychologist, 53, 205-220. McFarlane, A. C. (1987). Posttraumatic phenomena in a longitudinal study of children following a natural disaster. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 764-769. , & Glucksman, E. (2006). The role of the family in child and adolescent posttraumatic stress following attendance at an emergency department. Journal of Pediatric Psychology ,31, 397-402.

As the aforementioned review illustrates, factors contributing to children's adjustment after a disaster occur at multiple levels. As discussed 78 KELLEY ET AL. in Weems and Overstreet (2008) and the Introduction to this volume, Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006) states that an individual's functioning is influenced by multiple layers of "ecologies" that interact and influence one another and children's development. The multiple layers of influence range from distal ecologies, including cultural values; to proximal ecologies, including the environments in which children interact; as well as the ontogenic level, or individual characteristics associated with adjustment.

In addition, caregivers provided information regarding their child's age, grade, and ethnicity. Caregiver Hurricane Exposure. Caregivers completed a 12-item checklist adapted from previous disaster research (Silver, Holman, Mcintosh, Poulin, & Gil-Rivas, 2002) assessing the number of hurricane-related events they experienced. A summary score of number of hurricane-related events experienced was computed. Caregiver Hurricane-Related Violence and Secondary Adversity. A threeitem scale was used to assess caregivers' violence exposure in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

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