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Microbiol. 48, 655-674. 47 Binkley D and Giardina C 1998 Why do tree species affect soils? The warp and woof of treesoil interactions. Biogeochemistry 42, 89–106. Binkley D and Hart S C 1989 The components of nitrogen availability assessments in forest soils. Adv. Soil Sci. 10, 57-112. Bohn U, Gollub G, Hettwer C, Neuhauslova Z, Schlueter H and Weber H 2003 Karte der natuerlichen Vegetation Europas. Map of the natural vegetation of Europe. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn. Butterbach-Bahl K and Papen H 2002 Four years continuous record of CH4-exchange between the athmosphere and untreated and limed soil of a N-saturated spruce and beech forest ecosystem in Germany.

For. Res. 28, 1636-1647. Chapter 3 NUTRIENT TURNOVER, GREENHOUSE GAS EXCHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY IN NATURAL FORESTS OF CENTRAL EUROPE Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern1 , Evelyn Hackl1, Gert Bachmann*, Michael Pfeffer1 & Michael Englisch1 1 Institut für Waldökologie und Boden, Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum für Wald, Seckendorff-Gudent Weg 8, A-1131 Wien, Austria. 2Institut für Ökologie und Naturschutz, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Wien, Austria. at. ABSTRACT We measured microbial turnover of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in 12 natural forest reserves in Austria, and estimated potential emission rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and uptake rates of methane (CH4).

2000). Nitrogen mineralization potential and urease activity were measured according to Kandeler (1996a,b). , 2000). From SIR-data the microbial quotient as well as the metabolic quotient were calculated according to Insam (1996). Nitrate translocation into deeper soil horizons was measured by applying a soil core-IER method (Binkley and Hart 1989). Resin bags containing ion exchange resins (IER, 4 mg Dowex 1X8 pract. 5 cm depth, 9 cm diameter) which were taken from each sampling point. The resin bags and the soil cores were enclosed in close-fitting PVC tubes and returned to the same holes from which the cores had been taken.

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