By Ramona Browder Lazenby

This pathophysiology guide is best for simple reference within the lecture room or scientific setting. The booklet offers a precis of body structure innovations for every physique approach, via an summary of vital pathophysiology thoughts on the topic of 'alterations' in that physique procedure. those pathophysiology innovations give you the worthwhile starting place for figuring out the affliction or harm states which are awarded subsequent within the bankruptcy.

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77251_ch01 30/06/10 11:52 AM Page 25 CHAPTER 1 Cell Structure and Function 25 • Organ failure, including adult respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac failure, or kidney failure, may occur if hypoxia is prolonged. • Carbon monoxide poisoning: acute myocardial injury with increased longterm mortality. Treatment • • • • • • Prompt removal from the source of poisoning. Increase oxygen in inspired air through a mask or mechanical ventilation. For cyanide poisoning, nitrates and sodium thiosulfate therapy.

Retroviruses A unique type of virus is the retrovirus. These viruses are RNA viruses that can incorporate into the host DNA as a result of the action of the enzyme reverse transcriptase that changes the viral RNA into DNA. Retroviruses carry reverse transcriptase as part of their structure. 77251_ch01 30/06/10 11:52 AM Page 32 32 UNIT I Fundamental Mechanisms of Health and Disease Examples of human disease caused by retroviruses include acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and a form of leukemia, HTLV-I.

Causes of hypoxia include respiratory diseases and anything that affects blood flow, such as myocardial infarct, hemorrhagic shock, blood clots, various poisons, and some toxins released from microorganisms. Although a small amount of oxygen is carried in a dissolved state in the blood, most oxygen is carried bound to an iron-based protein called hemoglobin, present in the red blood cell. Cells and tissues become hypoxic when there is inadequate intake of oxygen by the respiratory system, inadequate delivery of oxygen by the cardiovascular system, or a lack of hemoglobin.

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