By Judith F. Kroll

How is language obtained while babies are uncovered to a number of language enter from start and while adults are required to profit a moment language after early youth? How do grownup bilinguals understand and convey phrases and sentences whilst their languages are in all probability consistently lively and in festival with each other? What are the neural mechanisms that underlie knowledgeable bilingualism? What are the final effects of bilingualism for cognition and for language and suggestion? This guide might be crucial interpreting for cognitive psychologists, linguists, utilized linguists, and educators who desire to greater comprehend the cognitive foundation of bilingualism and the good judgment of experimental and formal techniques to language technological know-how.

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At the onset of L1 vocabulary acquisition, representations are not likely to exist in memory for either concrete words or abstract words; in other words, at that stage concrete and abstract words do not differ with respect to their memory representations; the buildup of memory information for both types of words presumably starts from scratch. A plausible explanation for the concreteness effect in L1 vocabulary acquisition was already provided above: Only the acquisition of concrete words, not that of abstract words, is supported by the perceptual presence of these words’ referents in the child’s environment.

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