By Maurice A. Finocchiaro

This can be an interpretative and evaluative learn of the idea of Antonio Gramsci, the founder of the Italian Communist celebration who died in 1937 after ten years of imprisonment in Fascist jails. It proceeds through a rigorous textual research of his legal Notebooks, the scattered notes he wrote in the course of his incarceration. Professor Finocchiaro explores the character of Gramsci's dialectical considering, on the way to convey in what methods Gramsci used to be and was once now not a Marxist, in addition to to demonstrate correspondences with the paintings of Hegel, Croce, and Bukharin. The ebook offers a serious reappraisal of Gramsci as a philosopher and of the dialectical process as a method of inquiry.

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Thus, if Croce's philosophy of mind is to be methodology for the criticism of philosophies, then it is his aesthetics, logic, and philosophy of practice that must each be methodologies. But a methodology is always a methodology of or for something. So the question immediately arises: What are Croce's aesthetics, Croce and criticism logic, and philosophy of practice methodologies of? A tempting answer is that aesthetics is methodology of art, that logic is methodology of philosophical conceptualization, and that philosophy of the practical is methodology of action.

CROCE, CRITIC PAR EXCELLENCE If the greatness of a critic consists in the quality, variety, and quantity of his criticism, then perhaps no critic has ever been greater than Benedetto Croce: neither Voltaire nor Erasmus, neither Taine nor Coleridge nor Ruskin, neither Nietzsche nor Marx, neither Hegel nor Kant nor Hume nor Descartes, neither Jesus nor Socrates, who nevertheless can be said to constitute the criticism Hall of Fame in the history of man. In one respect, that of quality, Croce probably exceeds them all without possibility of comparison: His criticism was fully conscious of itself; the systematic articulation of this reflective awareness constitutes his theoretical philosophy, which provides both an understanding of the nature of criticism and criteria for its adequacy.

Gramsci replies to this in the second-longest paragraph of this notebook (Q1269-75), to which the first two discussions of part II are directly connected (Q1240-42). His counterinterpretation of Marx's allegedly turning Hegel right side up is that whereas Hegel makes theory prior to practice, one must make practice prior to theory (Q1273): If philosophy is history of philosophy, if philosophy is "history," if philosophy develops because of the development of the general history of the world (that is, the social relations by which men live), and not because a great philosopher is followed by a greater philosopher, and so forth, it is clear that by working practically to make history, one also makes "implicit" philosophy that will be "explicit" insofar as philosophers will elaborate it coherently, and one stimulates cognitive problems that, besides a "practical" type of solution, will sooner or later find a theoretical type of solution by specialists, after having taken the ingenuous form of popular common sense, namely, of the practical agents in historical developments.

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