By Máire Fedelma Cross

What have medieval nuns, parrot taking pictures, Freemasonry, and Shetland revelry obtained in universal? This learn of monastic orders, guilds, Freemasonry and pleasant societies over centuries and throughout frontiers offers new insights into their contribution to the gendering of public area and the evolution of 'separate spheres' in Europe.

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Peter H. J. H. Gosden, The Friendly Societies in England, 1815–1875 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1961), pp. 20–1; Keith D. M. Snell, ‘The Sunday School Movement in England and Wales: Child Labour, Denominational Control and Working-Class Culture’, Past and Present, 164 (1999), 122–68 (pp. 130–1). Gorsky, Patterns, pp. 117, 119. Owen (p. 424) notes the pattern among philanthropists of being either single or childless. Nicholas Terpstra, ‘Appenticeship in Social Welfare: From Confraternal Charity to Municipal Poor Relief in Early Modern Italy’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 25 (1994), 101–20.

16 It is only recently that historians interested in pre-industrial society have questioned Clark’s thesis and have suggested that, while there is indeed considerable evidence that women successfully undertook a wide range of economic activities in London and elsewhere during the later medieval and early modern periods, much of the work they undertook was low-paid and casual in character. Judith Bennett, for example, found that the number of women members of the brewers’ guild in London at the beginning of the fifteenth century had been consistently under-reported.

Thompson, p. 463. Chase, Early Trade Unionism, p. 24. Penelope J. Corfield, ‘From Poison Peddlers to Civic Worthies: The Reputation of the Apothecaries in Georgian England’, Social History of Medicine, 22 (2009), 1–21 (pp. 16–17). Daniel Weinbren 29 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Heather Swanson, ‘Crafts, Fraternities and Guilds in Late Medieval York’, in The Merchant Taylors of York: A History of the Craft and Company from the Fourteenth to Twentieth Centuries, ed. by R. Barrie Dobson and David M.

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