By Rashid A Ganeev

This e-book bargains a evaluation of using prolonged ablation plasmas as nonlinear media for HHG of high-order harmonic iteration (HHG). The ebook describes the various experimental ways, exhibits the benefits and obstacles concerning HHG potency and discusses the actual tactics that occur at longer interplay lengths, together with propagation and quasi-phase matching results. It describes the newest ways to harmonic iteration within the severe ultraviolet (XUV) variety with using prolonged plasma plumes, and the way those fluctuate from extra commonly-used gas-jet resources. the main target is on stories utilizing prolonged plasmas, yet a few new findings from HHG experiments in slender plasma plumes also are mentioned. It additionally describes how quasi-phase-matching in modulated plasmas, as established in fresh reports, has published various technique of tuning more suitable harmonic teams within the XUV quarter.

After an creation to the elemental theoretical and experimental points of HHG, a evaluate of crucial result of HHG in slim plasmas is gifted, together with fresh stories of small-sized plasma plumes as emitters of high-order harmonics. In bankruptcy 2, quite a few findings within the software of prolonged plasmas for harmonic iteration are analyzed. probably the most very important functions of prolonged plasmas, the quasi-phase-matching of generated harmonics, is validated in bankruptcy three, together with a variety of methods to the amendment of perforated plasma plumes. bankruptcy four depicts the nonlinear optical positive aspects of prolonged plasmas produced at the surfaces of other non-metal fabrics. bankruptcy five is devoted to the research of latest possibilities for prolonged plasma precipitated HHG. some great benefits of the appliance of lengthy plasma plumes for HHG, corresponding to resonance enhancement and double-pulse strategy, are mentioned in bankruptcy 6. eventually, a precis part brings jointly all of those findings and speak about the views of prolonged plasma formations for effective HHG and nonlinear optical plasma spectroscopy.

The e-book should be helpful for college kids and students operating during this hugely multidisciplinary area related to fabric technological know-how, nonlinear optics and laser spectroscopy. It brings the hot researcher to the very frontier of the physics of the interplay among laser and prolonged plasma; for the specialist it's going to function a necessary consultant and point out instructions for destiny research.

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10a). The harmonic emission was analyzed using an XUV spectrometer consisting of a flat field grating and MCP detector coupled to a phosphor screen. The images of harmonics were captured using a cooled CCD camera. The XUV spectrometer allowed the registration of the 11th to 23rd harmonics of 800 nm radiation. Various targets (Al, Cu, Ag, In, and Sn) prepared as 15 mm thick rods were used in these experiments. To minimize overheating and damage of the surface from repeated laser shots the rods rotated at slow revolutions, thus ensuring more stable ablation 22 2 HHG in Short-Length Plasmas (a) (b) Fig.

One can assume that, in the case of short pulses, the ablation of aluminum could lead to the formation of some amount of nanoparticles in the plasma plume. These particles may cause the enhancement of the harmonic yield compared with the neutrals. 3 Resonance Processes in the Plasma Plumes 25 analyze the morphology of debris from the ablation of the Al target by the femtosecond pulses as well as to use mass spectrometry of the plasma plume. Probably, the ablation of aluminum was carried out at the conditions when the “optimal” plasma formation coincided with the conditions for the formation of aluminum clusters.

Focusability plays role in the case when the Rayleigh length becomes shorter than the size of nonlinear medium. Background ionization was optimized in all plasma harmonic experiments prior to the measurements of the conversion efficiency. The composition of the medium was the same (neutrals and singly ionized particles of Al and Ag with approximately the same ionization rate). So, the optimization of HHG in both plasmas allows a rough estimation of the HHG efficiency. The efficiencies of harmonics from these two plasmas were rated as 1:4.

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