By Dennis E Ager
This e-book examines many of the difficulties and possibilities dealing with French-speaking international locations on the planet within the mid-1990s. After contemplating the advance of French impression and presence outdoor France, it investigates the character and variety of nations and components of the area the place French is spoken. 'Francophonie' might be outlined in 3 ways: by way of the French language; by means of club of a proper, organised group of countries; or by way of the reputation and promoting of a suite of values and ideology. the issues dealing with Francophonie in all 3 senses are mentioned subsequent: the id and tradition linked to French, threats from English and different languages, the opinion of many who France's carrying on with in another country possessions are little greater than the world's final colonies, the disparity among North and South in financial phrases, and the as but unresolved challenge of the fitting organisational constitution for Francophonie. In a last part are reviewed possibilities open to Francophonie in 3 assorted elements of the globe: Africa, the a ways East and Europe. Conclusions study the interdependence of 4 components: language, politics, economics and cultural values. The booklet is split into 3 components: the improvement and distribution of Francophonie, difficulties, possibilities, and is supported by means of a statistical appendix. The booklet is meant to make up to date details and opinion approximately Francophonie obtainable to English-speaking readers drawn to more than a few disciplines: French reports, comparative foreign reviews, sociolinguistics, the sociology of language, politics and economics, these fascinated about questions of language and identification, and common readers. it's also an overview of ways good Francophonie is positioned to stand the longer term.
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Extra info for Francophonie In The 1990's: Problems and Opportunities (Multilingual Matters)
Lebanon was part of the Roman Empire from 64 BC to 640 AD, under Arab control until 1299 when it fell to the Ottoman Empire, was autonomous from 1861 to 1920 and independent after 1943, so its formal connections with France were fairly brief. Lebanon is situated at the heart of the Middle East, the central point of contacts between Europe, Turkey and the Arab countries. From the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, Lebanon was the object of Christian attention during the Crusades, which had little linguistic effect, except on the Crusaders; and from missionaries, traders and educationalists from the sixteenthtwo Universities, St-Joseph using French and the American University in Beirut using English, were founded in the mid-nineteenth century.
Commerce was and always has < previous page page_25 next page > < previous page page_26 next page > Page 26 been central to Lebanon's contacts with Europe, so that the country has for centuries had contact with French, as an important commercial, cultural and political language. As a result, contemporary Lebanon is a multilingual country of ethnic and religious communitiesDruze, Maronite, Shiite, and Sunnite where spoken Arabic is the mother tongue. Armenian and some Turkish are spoken by the families of the 1915 wave of refugees from Turkey, while French is widely used as a (second, prestigious) spoken language in the bourgeoisie and in education, where its use is (theoretically) compulsory both in private and public schools.
It is a DOM with a total area of 1,780 square kilometres, formed of seven islands in an archipelago, and with a total population of 330,000. The islands have been settled by the French since 1635, became sugar plantations with imported slaves from 1650, were officially annexed by France in 1674, lost in the Napoleonic Wars, and after restoration to France in 1816, have remained in French possession. Slavery was abolished in 1848. Separated from Martinique by (English-speaking) independent Dominica, Guadeloupe's local politics and economy are dependent on its status as DOM,with the consequential problems of managing the European Union connection and the advantages of continuing subsidies from France and Europe.