By Wen-Chi Chiang, Tim Tolker-Nielsen (auth.), Yo Kikuchi, Elena Y. Rykova (eds.)

Extracellular nucleic acids have lately emerged as vital gamers within the fields of biology and the scientific sciences. within the final a number of years, extracellular nucleic acids were proven to be keen on not just microbial evolution as genetic parts but in addition to have structural roles in bacterial groups, akin to biofilms. Circulating DNA and RNA were present in human blood and anticipated to be priceless as non-invasive markers for the analysis of a number of ailments. furthermore, extracellular nucleic acids have attracted consciousness as lively modulators of the immune process of upper organisms, together with people. This ebook covers the vast majority of the newly constructing fields regarding extracellular nucleic acids, together with these of uncomplicated biology, ecology and the clinical sciences, and gives readers with the newest wisdom on them.

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Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68:560–602 Buchan A, Gonzalez JM, Moran MA (2005) Overview of the marine Roseobacter lineage. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5665–5677 Canchaya C, Fournous G, Chibani-Chennoufi S, Dillmann M-L, Brussow H (2003a) Phage as agents of lateral gene transfer. Curr Opin Microbiol 6:417–424 Canchaya C, Proux C, Fournous G, Bruttin A, Brussow H (2003b) Prophage genomics. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:238–276 Casjens S (2003) Prophages and bacterial genomics: what have we learned so far? Mol Microbiol 49:277–300 Casjens S, Hatfull G, Hendrix R (1992) Evolution of dsDNA tailed-bacteriophage genomes.

2005). 5 Gt. 45 Gt) in the world’s oceans (Whitman et al. 1998; Dell’Anno and Danovaro 2005). The size of the extracellular DNA molecules in natural environments ranges from a few hundred to 30,000 base pairs (bp) (DeFlaun et al. 1987). DNA fragments in this size range are sufficient to contain gene sequences. The turnover time of extracellular DNA that is not attached to a solid surface in aquatic environments is about 10 h (Paul et al. 1987, 1989). Degradation rates of extracellular DNA in marine sediments are much higher than of those in the water column because DNase activities are higher in the sediments.

Aeruginosa biofilms may increase the rate of mutagenic events due to the accumulation of DNA damage. Extracellular DNA is required for biofilm formation in various bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis biofilms were grown on glass substrates and treated with DNase I 30 K. Tani and M. Nasu for 6, 12, and 24 h. After 6 or 12 h, the biofilms were sensitive to DNase I (Thomas et al. 2008). However, the effect of DNase I was less after 24 h of treatment. E. faecalis mutants deficient in DNA release were significantly reduced in the biofilm biomass.

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