By Elysse M. Craddock (auth.), Max K. Hecht, Ross J. Macintyre, Michael T. Clegg (eds.)

After quantity 33, this e-book sequence used to be changed via the magazine "Evolutionary Biology." Please stopover at www.springer.com/11692 for extra information.

This quantity keeps bringing to readers the findings of eminent evolutionary biologists and paleobiologists. one of the themes mentioned during this booklet are the starting place of the dermal skeleton in conodont chordates, styles of nucleotide substitution and codon utilization in plasmid DNA evolution, a version to give an explanation for phenotype balance in useful structures, and inter-island speciation of Hawaiian biota.

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These barriers can be assayed in hybridization tests wherever laboratory culture is possible. This largely restricts analysis to the wellknown picture-winged species, many of the other groups being difficult or impossible to culture. From a review of the then available hybridization data, Craddock (1974a) concluded that reproductive relationships between Hawaiian Drosophila species are highly varied, reflecting various degrees of phylogenetic relationship, different rates of species differentiation, and different speciation modes.

Heteroneura. Further, differences in the ultrastructure of the egg chorion (Kambysellis, 1974) are suggestive of a shift in oviposition site (Kambysellis, 1993), even though both species utilize some of the same breeding substrates. Overall, it can be inferred that a substantial number of genes currently distinguish these two recently diverged species. What is not clear is which genetic changes were primary and crucial to the speciation event, and which ones followed separation of the gene pools of these two closely related species.

Some combinations of D. , Maui x Oahu) show fertility breakdown in the F2 and backcross males, although they show full fertility in the FI males (Ohta, 1980). This partial postmating isolation, along with evidence of some premating isolation (Ohta, 1978) and other behavioral (Ringo, 1976) and ecological differentiation (Montgomery, 1975), all features of species divergence, indicated that further examination of these taxa was in order. Accordingly, Piano et ai. (1997) undertook a phylogenetic analysis of the complex, using both molecular sequence data and morphological data (ultrastructure of the chorion), as well as all the previously available data.

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