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7. , 1994a). 8. Landlords commonly do not provide information on the energy efficiency of their buildings for prospective tenants. 9. This does not apply to manufacturing of building materials and components. 10. Toyota supplied about 3 300 units of prefabricated housing in 1999. 11. It is important to note that housing is not exported like automobiles, and that it is prefabricated and thus much more standardised in design and production process than other housing. 56 ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS – CHALLENGES AND POLICIES – ISBN 92-64-19825-3 – © OECD 2003 ISBN 92-64-19825-3 Environmentally Sustainable Buildings Challenges and Policies © OECD 2003 Chapter 5 Policy Instrument Options for Environmentally Sustainable Buildings ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS – CHALLENGES AND POLICIES – ISBN 92-64-19825-3 – © OECD 2003 57 5.

A “standardised” model of product manufactured under standardised quality control methods can undergo laboratory tests that provide results, but this is not feasible for actual buildings. Consequently, prospective buyers tend to lack information on the quality of buildings unless they conduct costly assessments. The custom designed nature of buildings also has a large impact on administrative cost. Implementing policy instruments in this sector often requires authorities to check whether the design of a certain building meets prescribed standards.

In the UK, an Internet-based waste information exchange scheme has been established, and the Flemish waste agency in Belgium is operating a similar system. 3. 15 For instance, there is the Building Materials Decree that was introduced in 1999 in the Netherlands. 16 It is expected that the decree will help to alleviate fears that recycled materials may leach hazardous chemical. Economic instruments Three kinds of economic instruments were identified, but they are used by a limited number of countries.

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