By David Graddol, Dick Leith, Joan Swann
The tale of English is frequently awarded as certainly one of growth: from a collection of Germanic dialects to a fully-fledged nationwide and overseas language. The emphasis during this e-book is at the variety of English all through its background and the altering social meanings of alternative types of English.
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Additional info for English: History, Diversity and Change (English Language: Past, Present and Future)
It was the remarkably progressive French cavalry, however, that conducted the tests and studies, resulting in the S-35—the best overall tank of the 1940 campaign. Given its relative detachment from the strict army doctrine, the cavalry quickly embraced the concept of a mechanized division centered on the medium weight S-35. It featured the ﬁrst all-cast hull and turret construction, a 47-mm gun mounted on an electrically control turret, and curved armor to deﬂect shots. The fact that the Germans incorporated virtually all the French tanks into their service following the 1940 campaign—even the old FT series for military-police work—attests to the excellent tank designs of the French.
18 In spite of the experimental and strategic creativity of its leading military minds, the British army did little to overturn the antiintellectualism and lack of disinterested professionalism that permeated the traditional regimental culture. 19 Inﬁghting among the armored-warfare advocates compounded problems, as did the absence of a strategic vision. 20 Having dissipated the oﬃcers responsible for the innovative armor experiments throughout the army during the late 1930s, and having ensured that none received senior commands during World War II, the British army had to suﬀer on the battleﬁeld for ignoring the lessons that it taught so well to the Germans and Russians before the war.
28 It is worth noting here how easily one can learn the wrong lesson from a case history. The problem Marshall faced was not decentralized command per se, but decentralized command populated by leaders resistant to a uniﬁed Army vision. In other circumstances, the creativity of decentralized commanders can facilitate innovation. Also, decentralization can mitigate the excesses of foolish top leaders. In short, contextual details do matter. 20 Military Reenginering Between the World Wars any published discourse that questioned established service doctrine.