By Debra Skelton
Алекса́ндр Македо́нский (Александр III Великий, 356 — 323 гг. до н. э.) — македонский царь с 336 до н. э. из династии Аргеадов, великий полководец, создатель мировой державы, распавшейся после его смерти. В западной историографии более известен как Алекса́ндр Вели́кий.В 334 до н. э. Александр отправился в свой знаменитый поход в Азию, а было ему только 18 лет. Результатом похода явилось создание огромной империи, простиравшейся от реки Истр (совр. Дунай) в Европе до реки Ганг в Индии.
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They followed him because they were disciplined soldiers. Some may have also been lured by the hope of finding some of the rare treasures that were said to be in abundance in India—a land few people in the West had ever seen. , Alexander and his army made the 400mile trek from Bactria to India. The land then known as India was not the huge sub-continent it is today, but roughly its northern third, and the Macedonians knew little about it. Had they been more familiar with its climate, they probably would not have chosen the beginning of the monsoon season as the time to invade.
In Babylon, he allowed the local satrap to remain in that position. Although his soldiers resented this, it was a wise policy. It meant that uprisings would be less likely, and other Persian satraps would be more willing to surrender if they knew they were likely to be reappointed. Alexander also separated the civil government from the military. Leaving a military force under Macedonian command in Babylon, he pushed farther east. , Alexander set out for the administrative center of the Persian Empire, Susa, a spot that today is about 30 miles from the city of Shustar in Iran.
Many of the men got altitude sickness. The intense glare caused snow blindness. There was a shortage of provisions, and nothing grew in the area except herbs. Supplies could not be moved by wagon, and the pack animals that carried them frequently fell on the dangerous, snow-covered roads. The men ate the dead mules raw because there was no cooking fuel. Men died of cold, hunger, and thirst. Alexander may have lost more than 2,000 men in the march across the Hindu Kush. He arrived in Bactria with fewer than 32,000 soldiers.