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Additional resources for Electrodynamics of solids Microwave superconductivity

Sample text

60) For a radar-type reﬂector at a distance d which returns the wave toward the source, we indicate the product GrpηSa by the equivalent target cross section Seq and obtain the equation of the radar for an isotropic source: 33 REFLECTOR AND PASSIVE REPEATER PR λ2 = Seq PE (4π )3 d 4 where Seq = GrpηSa. 19. 62) This expression can also be written if both repeater antennas are identical: PR GEGR  η A  = PE Pf  4π d1d2  2 GE′ = GR′ = η4π A λ2 where A is the area of the antennas back to back.

In a square projected aperture of size D (in meters) uniformly illuminated at a wawelength λ (in meters). Inside this zone, the energy is propagated in a tube delimited by the aperture D by presenting an equal-phase wave front and some oscillations of the amplitude versus the longitudinal axis. 61 D2 2λ 2. 33) 3. Fraunhofer’s Zone Beyond Fresnel’s zone, the energy is propagated in an inverse ratio to the square of the distance (law in 1/d2) and the radiant characteristics of the aperture are well deﬁned (radiation pattern, positions and levels of the minor lobes, gain in the axis, spherical wave front).

If EZ = 0, the wave is linearly polarized in the y direction. If EY = EZ, the wave is linearly polarized in a plane at angle of 45°. If EY = EZ with δ = ±90°, the wave is circularly polarized (left circularly polarized for δ = +90° and right circularly polarized for δ = −90°). The polarization is right circular if the rotation of the electric ﬁeld is clockwise with the wave receding and left circular if it is counterclockwise. It is also possible to describe the polarization of a wave in terms of two circularly polarized waves of unequal amplitude, one right (Er) and the other left (El).