By Kiyoshi Abe, William Gunther, Harold See

This quantity is the fabricated from a three-year collaborative venture among jap and American students. issues contain overseas alternate, international direct funding, coordination of economic and financial coverage, improvement assistance, telecommunications, highbrow estate rights, and agricultural and company tradition matters. The comparative analyses benefited from non-stop discussion between students from either side of the Pacific.

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When production bases move to foreign countries and products are made locally, technology is gradually transferred to local industries. The technological spill-over effect of local procurement of parts and raw materials is important. The local procurement ratio of Japanese subsidiaries established abroad since 1985 has been high from the outset as compared with those established before 1985. The high ratio suggests that local parts makers are maturing and making technical adjustments and improvements so that Japanese subsidiaries can be satisfied with their quality and may depend safely on them for local supplies.

79 120 2. 38i ( 13. 11i (6. 25) -2. 78i (-3. 52 ( 1. 63) Dependent variable common to all equations: Japan's real exports to US= JXU/ JXP (JXU =Japanese Exports to US (million dollars (US)), JXP =Japanese Export Price Index). Independent Variables: (I) Real Japanese Direct Investments in US=JDIU/USDYF (JDIU= Nominal Japanese Direct Investments in US (million dollars (US)), USDYF = US GNP Deflator) (2) Accumulated Real Japanese Direct Investments in US= AJDIU /USYDF (AJDIU =Accumulated (since 1951) Nominal Japanese Direct Investments in US (million dollars (US)), USYDF =US GNP Deflator) (3) Exchange Rate of Japanese Yen to US Dollar= YENDOL (4) US Real GNP= URGNP RR =Coefficient of Determination adjusted for D.

These same products are being imported into Japan. It is clear then that Japanese firms are now oriented toward maximizing cost efficiency, which means their operations are becoming more multinational. Some analysts point out two dangers arising from the rapidly increasing Japanese FDI: (l) industrial hollowing-out caused by the Kiyoshi Abe 47 transfer of production lines to facilities overseas and stagnant technological development, and (2) adverse impacts on employment of small and medium sized subcontractors in Japan.

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