By Mary Allessio Leck (Eds.)

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At least three responses appear to be selectively reinforced by seed predation. , Griffin, 1971; Janzen, 1971a, 1974a, 1976; Silvertown, 1981, 1982; Sork, 1983; O'Dowd and Gill, 1984; Ballardie and Whelan, 1986; Foster, 1986). Pre­ dator satiation strategies, including masting or episodic flushes of an­ nuals, require synchrony. Augspurger (1981) has shown that natural enemies can select strongly against temporally asynchronous indi­ viduals. Alternately, selective consumption should increase the frequency of traits that facilitate escape, such as dispersal by vertebrates prior to predation by specialized insects or destructive vertebrates (O'Dowd and Hay, 1980; Howe and Smallwood, 1982; Howe and Westley, 1986; Howe, 1986).

Tevis, 1958b; Pulliam and Brand, 1975; Mares and Rosenzweig, 1978; Whitford, 1978; Ashton, 1979; Davidson and Morton, 1981; Buckley, 1982; Collins and 34 Svata M. Louda Uno, 1985; Morton, 1985; Andersen, 1988). To what extent and under what conditions such losses actually change seed or adult plant density remains an open question. Experimental studies of postdispersal seed predation in seed and plant dynamics demonstrate several key points. One of these points is that postdispersal seed predation can determine density and relative species abundance in grasslands.

1987c; S. M. Louda, J. Mulroy, and R. D. Wulff, unpublished data). Interestingly, Krusi and Debussche (1988) show no differences in seed predation between hab­ itats; predation on Cornus sanguinea in southern France was similar in an olive grove, adjacent deciduous forest, and in the ecotone. More work on spatial variation in consumption has been done with insect damage to foliage. These studies suggest that a critical aspect is the plant's ability to compensate for the loss, which is a function of the timing of the loss, the resources available for recovery, and the plant's physiological condition.

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