By Andrzej Szujecki (auth.)

Few branches of the organic sciences have built to such an volume as has ecology within the contemporary many years. The profitable improvement of this technology is at once concerning have to create a legitimate clinical foundation wherein we will regulate our diminishing traditional assets and combine this with the regulate of organic platforms of the part species. stories at the bioenergetics of ecosystems, in addition to at the domestic­ ostatic mechanisms performing at the populations and biocenoses degrees are of significant significance during this recognize. the result of those reviews are very major in forestry administration which bargains with multiannual tree groups - woodland stands. it really is quite vital during this of the need for the potential recognize for financial making plans, in view lengthy upkeep of woodland biocenoses as good platforms. Neither within the current nor within the speedy destiny could be security of wooded area ecosystems such as typical plant and animal groups be completed by means of the cultivation of resistant varieties or the intensification of chemical intervention.

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B) coccolith of Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli), c) coccolith of Liocola /ugubris (Herbst): 1 - air sieve, 2 - outlet, I - longitudinal section, II - horizontal section, HI - cross-section b) Fig. ), b) larva of Cryptocepha/us (MUlier) in scatoconcha as well as the production of foam from the sap leaking from shoots damaged by Aphrophora spp. (Fig. 26). 5 %. Diapausing larvae of Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) removed from their cocoons lost after 7 days 24 % of their weight, whereas specimens remaining in their cocoons lost only 8 % (Schwerdtfeger, 1963).

The population of this species remains low on very humid soils of the transitional area between mixed coniferous forest and alder bog forest. Different phenomena are observed in C. nemoralis in that with intensified precipitation its population increases in the mixed coniferous forest habitat as well as in the transitional area to alder bog forest, whereas it remains very low in the pine forest biotope (Fig. 28). These data correspond with the results of laboratory studies on the humidity preferences of these species (GrUm, 1971).

After Yakhontov, 1964), (Fig. 17). ~ (J) E a. o ~ -c 40 Temperature (0C) Fig. 17 Rate of development of insects in dependence on tempera- ture (after Yakhontov, 1964) Shelford (1929) introduced the index of the rate of development. He calculated it as the percentage of the entire duration of development according to the following formula: v= 100 x 37 2. g. per 24 hours, x = duration of development of the given stage at a given mean temperature. Thus, the rate of development is the reciprocal of the time of development determined by the hyperbolic curve (C = xy).

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