By A. Stokes, Ioannis Spanos, Joanne E. Norris, Erik Cammeraat

In an period the place weather switch, average catastrophes and land degradation are significant concerns, the conservation of soil and crops in mountainous or sloping areas has develop into a world precedence. easy methods to keep away from substrate mass flow via landslides and erosion utilizing sustainable and ecologically sound innovations is swiftly changing into a systematic area the place wisdom from many various fields is needed. those court cases collect papers from geotechnical and civil engineers, biologists, ecologists and foresters, who talk about present difficulties in slope balance study, and the way to deal with these difficulties utilizing floor bio- and eco-engineering techniques.

Ground bioengineering equipment combine civil engineering innovations with usual fabrics to procure quick, powerful and fiscal tools of defending, restoring and preserving the surroundings while eco-engineering has been outlined as a long term ecological technique to deal with a website in regards to common or man-made dangers. stories on slope instability, erosion, soil hydrology, mountain ecology, land use and recovery and the way to mitigate those difficulties utilizing crops are provided by means of either scientists and practitioners. Papers surround many features of this multidisciplinary topic, together with the mechanisms and modelling of root reinforcement and the advance of choice help platforms, components the place major advances were made in contemporary years.

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For. Ecol. Manage. 166, 303–310. McMinn R G 1963 Characteristics of Douglas-fir root systems. Can. J. Bot. 41, 105–122. Meyer F H and G¨ottsche D 1971 Distribution of root tips and tender roots of beech. In H Ellenberg (ed), Ecological Studies. Analysis and Synthesis, Vol. 2, pp. 47–52. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Nilaweera N S 1994 Effects of the roots on slope stability: the case of Khao Luang Mountain area, So. Thailand, Degree thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand. Nilaweera N S and Nutalaya P 1999 Role of tree roots in slope stabilisation.

Burke M K and Raynal D J 1994 Fine root growth phenology, production and turnover in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem. Plant Soil 162, 135–146. Burroughs E R and Thomas B R 1977 Declining root strength in Douglas-fir after felling as a factor in slope stability USDA Forest Service Research Paper INT-190, 27 p. Bu¨ottner V and Leuschner C 1994 Spatial and temporal patterns of fine root abundance in a mixed oak beech forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 70, 11–21. Chiaradia E A and Bischetti G B 2004 Estimation of the effect of forest on soil slip phenomena by means of a spatially distributed model.

Pile eq. 2 ult. 2 peak Frydman direct shear alfalfa Eq. 26 μ = sr /Ar . 23 Figure 2. FEM simulation of Shewbridge and Sitar’s test, loaddisplacement curve. were measured. In this case the calculated value is close to the measured one and agrees with the authors’ observation that friction was fully developed. In the tests by Shewbridge and Sitar (1989), the deformations of the soil and the reinforcements were observed. The latter was used by the authors to calculate the tensile force in the reinforcement and sr .

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