By Dale Miquelon
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Extra resources for Dugard of Rouen: French Trade to Canada and the West Indies, 1729-1770
The first example is of the simplest kind. When Jan van Paarling of Hamburg sold merchandise that Dugard had sent for his own account, he attributed the proceeds to Dugard's account with himself. 58 Van Paarling's subsequent venture in the Cadiz trade shows not only the indirect means of payment made possible by drafts, but the intricacy of which the commission agent system was capable. Van Paarling asked Dugard to ship 150 pieces of blancard to Cadiz on his behalf. Since blancards were available only in Rouen, Dugard asked his father to take care of the matter.
The export of linen to Cadiz and thence to Spanish America in Spanish ships was the region's most important link with trans-Atlantic markets. But in the 17308 the merchants of Rouen and Le Havre became serious contenders in the French markets of the West Indies and Canada. 29 An essential aspect of this trade was the re-export of colonial commodities to other European countries. The new trade was thus complementary to the old, permitting Rouen importers to build up credits abroad. The history of Dugard and Company is a part of this larger history of colonial trade.
Commercial institutions of some development and sophistication had made barter unnecessary even in the Middle Ages. Dugard's commercial transactions in Amsterdam itself depended upon cash payments or transfer payments in the Bank of Amsterdam. 54 When five days later Rutgers sold Dugard a quantity of whale oil, the two made no attempt to set off the two transactions insofar as values permitted. Rather, at the same time Rutgers paid for the wool by means of the bank, and on 21 April Dugard paid for the oil with cash.