By Dale Miquelon

In 1953 the owner of the chateau of Bonneval at los angeles Haye-Aubrée par Routot within the Norman division of Eure awarded the French nationwide data with a set of eighteenth-century papers. that they had been dropped at the chateau via prior proprietors on the time of the French Revolution. The owner used to be unrelated to those shadowy figures, and the papers involved neither his relations nor the property. Now deposited on the records Nationales in Paris, the forty five cartons of letters and company papers inform the tale of the company actions of the Dugard kinfolk of Rouen. The earliest merchandise within the assortment is a invoice of trade dated three January 1658/59, and the final letter is from 1794. lots of the papers crisis Roben Dugard, 1704-70, and a couple of businesses shaped via him and a number of other Rouen retailers, between them the societé du Canada. Dugard and corporate, because the societé could be known as with much less formality, was once based in 1729 to take advantage of the exchange of Canada with France and the West Indies. quickly it directed its realization to the advance of a Franco-Caribbean alternate self reliant of its North-Atlantic trade. the current background is a case examine of a company partnership. the scale and constitution of eighteenth-century French company firms, the character of French enterprise finance, equipment and maritime coverage, French commodities of exchange and markets, and the relation of French company to govt are all tested. So too is the style and quantity of the penetration of French company into Canada and the West Indies.

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The first example is of the simplest kind. When Jan van Paarling of Hamburg sold merchandise that Dugard had sent for his own account, he attributed the proceeds to Dugard's account with himself. 58 Van Paarling's subsequent venture in the Cadiz trade shows not only the indirect means of payment made possible by drafts, but the intricacy of which the commission agent system was capable. Van Paarling asked Dugard to ship 150 pieces of blancard to Cadiz on his behalf. Since blancards were available only in Rouen, Dugard asked his father to take care of the matter.

The export of linen to Cadiz and thence to Spanish America in Spanish ships was the region's most important link with trans-Atlantic markets. But in the 17308 the merchants of Rouen and Le Havre became serious contenders in the French markets of the West Indies and Canada. 29 An essential aspect of this trade was the re-export of colonial commodities to other European countries. The new trade was thus complementary to the old, permitting Rouen importers to build up credits abroad. The history of Dugard and Company is a part of this larger history of colonial trade.

Commercial institutions of some development and sophistication had made barter unnecessary even in the Middle Ages. Dugard's commercial transactions in Amsterdam itself depended upon cash payments or transfer payments in the Bank of Amsterdam. 54 When five days later Rutgers sold Dugard a quantity of whale oil, the two made no attempt to set off the two transactions insofar as values permitted. Rather, at the same time Rutgers paid for the wool by means of the bank, and on 21 April Dugard paid for the oil with cash.

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