By Wolfgang Maichen

As many circuits and functions now input the Gigahertz frequency diversity, actual electronic timing measurements became an important within the layout, verification, characterization, and alertness of digital circuits.

To be triumphant during this box an engineer must comprehend instrumentation, size suggestions, sign integrity, jitter and timing suggestions, and records. This booklet supplies a compact, practice-oriented review on some of these matters with emphasis on useable strategies and real-life guidelines.

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Extra info for Digital Timing Measurements: From Scopes and Probes to Timing and Jitter (Frontiers in Electronic Testing)

Example text

A way out of this is to use a passive analog delay line (a fancy word for a long, low-loss cable) to delay the #2. Measurement Hardware 43 signal so the trigger comes with a sufficient head start before the signal arrives, but losses in the cable prevent us from making this delay very large (more than a few 10 ns). At the same time it is equally difficult to look at things a long time after the trigger, because the whole interval has to fit on the screen and so large time delays mean our timing resolution will suffer.

While important and extremely helpful for troubleshooting digital circuits, those modes are of less importance for standard timing and jitter measurements where the signal itself is usually repetitive, well defined and stable and we aim to characterize its properties with utmost accuracy. A challenge for any real-time scope is to achieve the highest sampling rate (measured in GSamples/s) possible, so it can accurately capture even fast changing signal (more details to that later in this chapter).

Second, no energy is dissipated, but it is stored in the electric and magnetic fields along the line. Third, at the end of the line a reflection of the signal will occur; more precisely, reflections occur whenever there is a change in the impedance along the line (and the end of the line can be seen as a change to infinite impedance). e. realvalued and time-invariant), but can also be a capacitor, some network, or even another transmission line with different characteristic impedance. Three important cases can be derived from above equation: First, if the load 22 Chapter #1 impedance is equal to the line impedance (ZL = Z0), we speak of matched termination.

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