By Ulf Schnars, Claas Falldorf, John Watson, Werner Jüptner
This ebook provides a self-contained therapy of the rules and significant purposes of electronic hologram recording and numerical reconstruction (Digital Holography). This moment version has been considerably revised and enlarged. The authors have prolonged the bankruptcy on electronic Holographic Microscopy to include new sections on particle sizing, particle photograph velocimetry and underwater holography. a brand new bankruptcy now bargains comprehensively and greatly with computational wave box sensing. those strategies signify a desirable substitute to straightforward interferometry and electronic Holography. they allow wave box sensing with no the requirement of a specific reference wave, therefore permitting using low brilliance mild assets or even liquid-crystal monitors (LCD) for interferometric applications.
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Extra resources for Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing: Principles, Techniques and Applications
The recorded interference pattern is the hologram. The original object wave is reconstructed by illuminating the hologram with the reference wave, Fig. 13. An observer sees a virtual image, which is optically indistinguishable from the original object. The reconstructed image exhibits all effects of perspective, parallax and depth-of-ﬁeld. The holographic process is described mathematically using the formalism of Sect. 2. Across the extent of the photographic plate, the complex amplitude of the object wave is described by EO ðx;yÞ ¼ aO ðx;yÞ expðiuO ðx;yÞÞ ð2:58Þ with real amplitude aO and phase uO .
Charged Coupled Device, CCD, or Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, CMOS). The resulting hologram is electronically recorded and stored in a computer. The object is, in general, a three dimensional body with diffusely reﬂecting surfaces, located at a distance d from the sensor (measured to some representative plane). This is just the classical off-axis geometry of photographic holography save that the recording medium is an electronic sensor array rather than photographic ﬁlm. In classical optical reconstruction using a replica of the original reference wave to illuminate the hologram, a “virtual” (primary) image is recreated at a distance d behind the sensor plane as viewed by an observer; a “real” (secondary) image is also formed at a distance d, from the sensor but in front of it, between it and the observer, see Fig.
23), the pixel distances in the reconstructed image Δξ and Δη are dependent on the chosen numerical reconstruction distance d. This is because 48 3 Digital Holography Fig. 7 Reconstruction Fig. 8 Masked digital hologram Eq. 23) corresponds to the diffraction limited resolution of an optical system. The hologram corresponds to the aperture of the optical system with a side of length NDx; a diffraction pattern develops at a distance d behind the hologram. The term Dn ¼ kd=NDx therefore describes the half-diameter of the Airy disk or the speckle diameter in the plane of the reconstructed image, accordingly, limits the resolution.