By Claus Mattheck, W. Linnard
The poultry bone that you nibbled and threw away the day prior to this was once a high-tech product! in reality it was once a superlative lightweight layout functionally tailored to the mechanical standards. No engineer on the earth has as but been capable of reproduction this structural member, that's excellently optimized in its exterior form and its inner structure as regards minimal weight and greatest energy.
The tree trunk on that you lately carved your initials has additionally over the process its existence, progressively more desirable its inner and exterior constitution and tailored itself optimally to new rather a lot. during its biomechanical self-optimization, it is going to heal the notch you narrow as quickly as attainable, that allows you to fix even the smallest weakness, which would differently rate it its lifestyles within the subsequent storm.
This ebook is devoted to the certainty of this biomechanical optimization of form. and never simply that: With the information of those excellent methods of self-optimization in nature, thoughts for the advance of mechanical structural participants should be built. already makes use of them. Nature exhibits us the best way to eco-design, to machines in line with nature's legislation governing buildings and shapes.
CLAUS MATTHECK: Born in Dresden, Germany in 1947. research of physics in Dresden, PhD in theoretical physics in 1973. Habilitation within the box of wear and tear keep an eye on in 1985. Lectures on biomechanics on the collage of Karlsruhe. Head of the dept of Biomechanics of the examine Centre in Karlsruhe, the place the implications defined during this ebook have been received. a number of awards in technology and literature.
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28). This process is called apical dominance. Growing away from the trunk, the branches also receive more light than would a bundle of branches lying close to the trunk and pointing upwards. g. with beech, where the wind loading of a crown located so high up in the top of the tree would act on the longest lever ann, namely the full length of the trunk. However, this is of little importance in such dense stands because of the mutual shelter. Now, if the leading shoot falls sick, or breaks right off as a result of wind or snow load, it no longer makes sense for the nearest side branches to respect their weak leader.
These consideration were first put forward by Metzger  for spruce trunks. These admittedly quite rough theoretical predictions actually correspond amazingly well with reality. g. by different wind velocities at different heights, which again depend on stand structure, for example whether there are bushes growing underneath, or whether hedges, walls etc. are reducing the wind loading near the ground. A general reduction in the wind velocity only reduces the uniform stress 0"1 and thus does not disturb the functional relationship h(D).
A general reduction in the wind velocity only reduces the uniform stress 0"1 and thus does not disturb the functional relationship h(D). However, the proportionality factors are reduced, and the diameter differences from bottom to top come out smaller, as we have all observed in a dense pole stand. If the storm is able to break into this snug world, then the often extensive wind breakage shows very clearly that a thicker trunk would have been needed to defy this unexpected force of nature. Besides the existing shape optimization, which only provides uniformity of stress on the component's surface, the actual value of this uniform stress, here called 0"1' must also be limited in absolute numerical terms.