By Peter Zugenmaier
Cellulose as an considerable renewable fabric has prompted simple and utilized learn that has led to major growth in polymer technological know-how. This e-book discusses trustworthy crystal constructions of all cellulose polymorphs and cellulose derivatives. types are represented in graphs, including a suite of geometrical info and the atomic coordinates. This ebook is a concise consultant for contributors of the fabrics and lifestyles sciences groups attracted to cellulose and similar materials.
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Additional info for Crystalline cellulose and cellulose derivatives: characterization and structures
The polymer fibers exhibit imperfect crystals and are additionally disturbed by some amorphous parts present in the materials. Therefore, further information is needed on the materials in addition to X-ray data, such as the chemical constitution, configuration and intramolecular and intermolecular interactions provided by spectroscopy and other means. The conformation of cellulose as chains of 1-4-linked b-d-glucose in the 4C1 chair configuration with primary bonds between residues was not known at the beginning of the structural research on native fibers of cellulose and caused many controversies.
16 Model of antiparallel-arranged cellulose (Meyer and Misch 1937) redrawn with the published coordinates. Only two corner chains and one center chain are shown for better visualization. Some of the bonds are outside the established limits of the time as already recognizable from the drawing Kiessig (1939) reported, Sponslor and Dore missed some innermost strong reflections because of their equipment, which led them to propose the 1-1, 4-4 linkage along the cellulose chain. 2) as shown later (Bragg 1930; Kiessig 1939) with the nowadays accepted monoclinic cell parameters.
In an electron diffraction study Claffey and Blackwell (1976) confirmed their original parallel-down arrangement from X-ray data (Gardner and Blackwell 1974), now recognized as not correct. They explicitly pointed out that no odd meridional reflections are observed. Direct observation in the electron microscope of stained fibrils of native cellulose at one end or enzymatic degraded microfibrils clearly favors the parallel packing within single fibrils. These findings are supported by an evaluation of up to the 12th-order meridional reflections of Valonia, which also points towards a parallel packing arrangement (Macchi 1990).