By Craig Boardman, Denis O. Gray, Drew Rivers

At a time whilst clinical and technical innovation now calls for a mess of heterogeneous inputs and services from the private and non-private sectors alike, cooperative learn facilities (CRCs) have emerged because the primary motor vehicle for cross-sector collaboration. within the U.S. on my own, there are millions of CRCs on collage campuses, and corporations just like the nationwide technological know-how origin, nationwide Institutes of well-being, division of security, and extra lately the dept of strength fund CRCs to deal with the various nation’s so much bold demanding situations with technological know-how and expertise, together with melanoma and different ailments, terrorism surveillance and the detection of guns of mass destruction, and new power applied sciences and clever strength grid improvement. many times participates in CRCs for entry to wisdom, capability improvement, and to mitigate chance. This quantity contains study investigating CRCs from North the US, Europe, Australia, and Asia to discover the dynamics of CRCs, together with yet no longer constrained to source allocation, constitution, point of sponsorship, association and club, administration and operations, pursuits and targets, and in doing so identifies either transformations and similarities throughout institutional and nationwide contexts. the quantity sheds mild at the function of CRCs in selling innovation, S&T coverage, and monetary improvement, and at the functional facets of profitable CRC administration. furthermore, the works incorporated within the quantity give some thought to the consequences for a number of the stakeholder teams (firms, universities, researchers, scholars, policymakers) invested in CRCs.

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Jennifer Clark (Georgia Institute of Technology) assesses the neglected topic of policy coordination across tiers of governance via CRCs. Noting that national and subnational policy frameworks for technology transfer and economic development oftentimes fail to address the importance of physical proximity (or the lack thereof) among researchers and participants in CRCs, she conducts a cross-case comparison of CRCs in the United States and Canada. Her paper illustrates the ways STI policy outcomes may be influenced by the spatial distribution of scientific and technical production.

In our view, this contribution addresses two fundamental realities for the management of university-based CRCs, at least in the United States. First, these centers are embedded within larger institutions (universities) upon which they are reliant for resources, including but not limited to department-based faculty. Moreover, this type of CRC is relatively constrained in terms of the structural and managerial options available for inducing contributions from boundary-spanning participants towards center goals (Boardman 2012), and thus relies on center leadership to forge university relations to acquire not only the resources but also the legitimacy required to ensure center performance.

For instance, Tierlinck and Spithoven (2010) found different “installment” outcomes for CRCs funded by regional governments as compared to either national or EU sources. In the United States, CRCs that are supported by state units of government are much more likely to emphasize near-term commercialization, collaboration with small companies and job creation than federally supported ones (Gray 2011). Finally, a number of authors have discussed the possibility that collaborative arrangements are curvilinear in nature, with the nature and outcome of the relationship changing at higher levels of the variable under consideration.

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