By Roanld W. Langacker

This study monograph develops and illustrates an leading edge conception of linguistic constitution, known as "cognitive grammar", and applies it to consultant phenomena in English and different languages. Cognitive grammar perspectives language as an intergral truth of cognition and claims that grammatical constitution can't be understood or revealingly defined independently of semantic issues. It argues that grammar kinds a continuum with the lexicon and is reducible to symbolic relationships (i.e. form-meaning pairings), and as a result that every one legitimate grammatical constructs have a few form of conceptual import.

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In summary, [BE] follows through time, by means of sequential scanning, the evolution of a situation that is construed as being stable but not further specified (except for its relational character). Any single component state of [BE] constitutes a schematic Stative relation. At the first level of constituency in Figure 14, the more specific Stative relation (ABOVE-TABLE) is put in correspondence with a representative state of [BE], the latter serving as profile determinant. The result is the composite predication (BEABOVE-TABLE), which is like [BE] except that all the specifications inherited from (ABOVE-TABLE) are attributed to the situation followed sequentially through time.

Central to this locative system is a basic 'inside*/'outside' contrast symbolized respectively by the morphemes u and a, one of which is found in virtually every particle and prefix combination in the system. The sentences in (1) are typical examples. (1) a. ka-pii=a-re'-rreeri'i m-a-a haa-ta'a not-it=outside-in:middle-be:visible MED-outside-footof:slope water-in 'The river is muddy' b. u-kd-taa-sin mt kantiira inside-down-burn-DUR ART candle The candle is burning' The purpose of this chapter is to present and explicate some of the subtleties of the ula contrast, as well as to illustrate certain constructs and fundamental principles of cognitive semantics.

The sentences in (1) are typical examples. (1) a. ka-pii=a-re'-rreeri'i m-a-a haa-ta'a not-it=outside-in:middle-be:visible MED-outside-footof:slope water-in 'The river is muddy' b. u-kd-taa-sin mt kantiira inside-down-burn-DUR ART candle The candle is burning' The purpose of this chapter is to present and explicate some of the subtleties of the ula contrast, as well as to illustrate certain constructs and fundamental principles of cognitive semantics. On first examination, a unified and coherent account of u and a does not seem possible, for these prefixes appear to be used in inexplicable, inconsistent, or directly contradictory ways.

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