By Taoufik Bourdi

During this publication, the authors define certain layout method for speedy frequency hopping synthesizers for RF and instant communications purposes. there's nice emphasis on fractional-N delta-sigma dependent section locked loops from requisites, approach research and structure making plans to circuit layout and silicon implementation. The built options within the e-book may also help in designing very low noise, excessive pace fractional-N frequency synthesizers.

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Extra resources for CMOS Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for Wireless Multi-Gigahertz Applications: Design Methodology, Analysis, and Implementation

Example text

19) where k is Boltzmann’s constant, T is the device temperature, and R is the resistance value. 66 × 10−20 V–C. Using circuit analysis, the transfer function can be calculated from each noise voltage generator to the filter output voltage. (These equations are not simplified, but are reduced enough for computer implementation. Note the low-pass characteristic on R2 and R3. 4 Main Divider Noise The divider is a periodically time-varying circuit. The fixed-ratio frequency divider gives an ideal noise figure F = 20log(N).

Above 500 kHz, the PLL loop filter should filter out the phase noise of the MASH modulator. Therefore, the usage of the MASH modulator is a key factor in reducing the phase noise plateau in fractional-N frequency synthesizer. Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizers 39 Figure 3-18. 1 Fractional-N Case Study In this section, a case study is presented for a ∆−Σ-based frequency synthesizer used in the WLAN standard. The selected output frequency was chosen to yield a fractional division ratio. The specified parameters are similar to those presented in the case of the integer PLL but with a higher sampling frequency of 40 MHz as shown in the shaded cell of Table 3-5.

939–940. [4] I. V. Brennan, “Phase Noise Contribution of the Phase/Frequency Detector in a Digital PLL Frequency Synthesizer,” IEE Proceedings on Circuits, Devices and Systems, Feb. 2003, 150 (1), pp. 1–5. D. A. A. Kwasniewski, “Delta–Sigma Modulation in Fractional-N Frequency Synthesis,” IEEE Journal SolidState Circuits, 28, pp. 553–559, May 1993. [6] B. Miller and B. Conley, “A Multiple Modulator Fractional Divider,” Proceedings of IEEE 44th Annual Symposium Frequency Control, 1990, pp. 559–567.

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