By Peter Mullany, Adam P. Roberts
Clostridium difficile, a huge nosocomial pathogen proven to be a first-rate reason behind antibiotic-associated sickness, has emerged as a hugely transmissible and regularly antibiotic-resistant organism, inflicting a substantial burden on health and wellbeing care platforms all over the world. In Clostridium difficile: equipment and Protocols, professional researchers collect the main lately constructed equipment for learning the organism, together with thoughts regarding isolation, molecular typing, genomics, genetic manipulation, and using animal types. Written within the hugely profitable Methods in Molecular Biology™ sequence structure, chapters contain short introductions to their respective subject matters, lists of the required fabrics and reagents, step by step, comfortably reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes highlighting pointers on troubleshooting and fending off identified pitfalls.
Authoritative and state of the art, Clostridium difficile: equipment and Protocols serves as a terrific consultant for scientists now able to achieve an in-depth knowing of the way this organism is transmitted and the way it explanations disease.
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Extra resources for Clostridium difficile: Methods and Protocols
Pechine S, Janoir C, Boureau H, et al. (2007) Diminished intestinal colonization by Clostridium difficile and immune response in mice after mucosal immunization with surface proteins of Clostridium difficile. Vaccine 25, 3946–3954. von Eichel-Streiber C, Boquet P, Sauerborn M and Thelestam M. (1996) Large clostridial cytotoxins – a family of glycosyltransferases modifying small GTPbinding proteins. Trends Microbiol 4, 375–382. Triadafilopoulos G, Pothoulakis C, O’Brien MJ and LaMont JT. (1987) Differential effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B on rabbit ileum.
Annu Rev Med 49, 375–390. Wilcox M and Minton J. (2001) Role of antibody response in outcome of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Lancet 357, 158–159. Shim JK, Johnson S, Samore MH, Bliss DZ and Gerding DN. (1998) Primary symptomless colonisation by Clostridium difficile and decreased risk of subsequent diarrhoea. Lancet 351, 633–636. Leung DY, Kelly CP, Boguniewicz M, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT and Flores A. (1991) Treatment with intravenously administered gamma globulin of chronic relapsing colitis induced by Clostridium difficile toxin.
Clindamycin resistance is common among strains causing outbreaks (199) but in a non-epidemic setting only 10% will be highly resistant (MIC >256 μg/ml) and 34% of moderate to low resistance (MIC 4–8 μg/ml) (204). Most frequently this resistance is due to the presence of the ermB gene and which encode resistance to methylase–lincosamide–streptogramin (MLS) which includes erythromycin (206). 003 μg/ml) and the remaining fully resistant (131, 196). C. difficile has a low MIC to the newly introduced antimicrobials like linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline which should not select for C.