By George Ohring (eds.)

This booklet describes completely the North American weather of the previous sixty five million years, with detailed emphasis at the final 21,000 years, as printed through paleoclimatic observations and weather versions. It analyzes climate observations during the last century and satellite tv for pc measurements of the previous couple of a long time to increase an image of more moderen climatic developments. It explains how international weather types are used to simulate and undertaking weather, and provides the applying of those versions to breed fresh weather adaptations and expect destiny North American weather. It solutions the serious query of no matter if saw weather switch is because of typical diversifications or human activity.

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Net radiation anomalies in July also track the general trend in summer insolation anomalies, with the important exception of the strongly negative values over the ice sheets, owing to the high albedo of the ice. Because the surface at high latitudes is snow covered in winter at present, large albedo-related net radiation anomalies do not occur in the January simulations. Simulated 2 m air temperatures (Fig. 10) are generally colder than present at 21 and 18 ka, except in Beringia, where southerly winds induced by the influence of the large ice sheet advect air that is warmer at a particular latitude than in adjacent areas.

And switch sign to positive anomalies along the southern edge of the continent, in the region of enhanced westerlies and precipitation. In July, soil moisture anomalies south of the ice sheet are positive from 21 through 15 ka, reflecting the generally lower-than-present evaporation rates then. After 9 ka, January soil moisture anomalies are relatively small, while July anomalies are generally negative, except for the small region of positive anomalies associated with the greater-than-present precipitation anomalies related to the stronger North American monsoon then (Harrison et al.

5 1 2 12 ka 1 2 g kg-1 00 ka 4 03 ka July 850mb Specific Humidity 1 2 g kg-1 8 g kg-1 00 ka 4 8 g kg-1 Fig. 13 As in Fig. 8, except for specific humidity at the 850 mb level 500 mb level (Fig. 14) which is expressed using pressure as opposed to altitude as the vertical coordinate (in units of Pa s-1). Rising motions are of negative sign and subsiding motions are of positive sign because atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude. Rising motions in the atmosphere, and the consequent adiabatic cooling enhances the formation of clouds and precipitation under and downstream of upper-level troughs (negative 500 mb height anomalies), and in regions of steep horizontal temperature gradients (fronts).

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