By Roger Owen, Sue King

This ebook is aimed toward scholars taking the GCSE Double technological know-how award and at lecturers who will locate it priceless as a convenient reference and planner. the 1st 3 sections of the ebook contain a precis of 'Materials and their houses' for key level three of the.

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This booklet goals to hide the requisites of the most exam forums for GCSE Double technology, GCSE unmarried technological know-how and the middle content material of GCSE Chemistry. the place proper, Key degree three fabric is Read more...

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The term octane applies to petrol. What does this suggest about petrol? OIL AND HYDROCARBONS Alkanes Alkanes are hydrocarbons with a general formula CnH2n+2. • Hydrocarbons are compounds of hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) only. • Each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen atom forms one bond. • This gives rise to a simple formula, CH4, which is that of methane. Methane CH4 H H C H Methane is the hydrocarbon with the simplest formula. It is a colourless, flammable gas. It is the gas which is supplied to homes for cooking and heating.

Loses e– atom X cation X+ X+ Y– atom Y Each ion attracts ions of opposite charge from all directions, giving a ‘giant structure’ of ions. anion Y– gains e– This is what happens when sodium reacts with chlorine. The sodium atoms give their outer electrons to the chlorine atoms. In this way both types of atom attain a stable outer arrangement of electrons. Na Cl sodium Na chlorine + – The structure of sodium chloride is shown on page 35. Cl sodium chloride Lithium bonds to fluorine in a similar way.

2. Chlorine, bromine, and iodine are all in Group 7 of the Periodic Table. Write symbols for the chloride, bromide, and iodide ions. 3. Why do lithium, sodium, and potassium all form ions with a single + charge? 4. 8. Show the same changes when the atoms listed form ions: 3Li, 13Al, 20Ca, 9F, 16S. 5. Why is it difficult to predict the ions formed by 6C? 6. Why are the elements Sc to Zn all likely to form positive ions? 7. Name the following ions: Cl–, Br–, O2–, S2–, SO42–, CO32–. 31 IONS AND BONDING Ionic bonds An ionic bond is a strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

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