By Roger Owen, Sue King
This ebook is aimed toward scholars taking the GCSE Double technological know-how award and at lecturers who will locate it priceless as a convenient reference and planner. the 1st 3 sections of the ebook contain a precis of 'Materials and their houses' for key level three of the.
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The Phytochemical Society of North the United States held its forty-fourth annual assembly in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada from July 24-28, 2004. This year's assembly was once hosted by way of the collage of Ottawa and the Canadian woodland provider, nice Lakes Forestry Centre and used to be held together with the foreign Society of Chemical Ecology.
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"I haven't any gown other than the single I put on on a daily basis. when you are going to be type adequate to provide me one, please allow it's sensible and darkish in order that i will placed it on afterwards to visit the laboratory", acknowledged Marie Curie approximately her marriage ceremony gown. in accordance with her lecture notes, Gertrude B. Elion is quoted a number of a long time later: "Don't be terrified of exertions.
A consultant to examining the buildings and houses of natural molecules until eventually lately, the learn of natural molecules has traveled down disparate highbrow paths—the experimental, or actual, process and the computational, or theoretical, strategy. operating a bit independently of one another, those disciplines have guided learn for many years, yet they're now being mixed successfully into one unified approach.
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The term octane applies to petrol. What does this suggest about petrol? OIL AND HYDROCARBONS Alkanes Alkanes are hydrocarbons with a general formula CnH2n+2. • Hydrocarbons are compounds of hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) only. • Each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen atom forms one bond. • This gives rise to a simple formula, CH4, which is that of methane. Methane CH4 H H C H Methane is the hydrocarbon with the simplest formula. It is a colourless, flammable gas. It is the gas which is supplied to homes for cooking and heating.
Loses e– atom X cation X+ X+ Y– atom Y Each ion attracts ions of opposite charge from all directions, giving a ‘giant structure’ of ions. anion Y– gains e– This is what happens when sodium reacts with chlorine. The sodium atoms give their outer electrons to the chlorine atoms. In this way both types of atom attain a stable outer arrangement of electrons. Na Cl sodium Na chlorine + – The structure of sodium chloride is shown on page 35. Cl sodium chloride Lithium bonds to fluorine in a similar way.
2. Chlorine, bromine, and iodine are all in Group 7 of the Periodic Table. Write symbols for the chloride, bromide, and iodide ions. 3. Why do lithium, sodium, and potassium all form ions with a single + charge? 4. 8. Show the same changes when the atoms listed form ions: 3Li, 13Al, 20Ca, 9F, 16S. 5. Why is it difficult to predict the ions formed by 6C? 6. Why are the elements Sc to Zn all likely to form positive ions? 7. Name the following ions: Cl–, Br–, O2–, S2–, SO42–, CO32–. 31 IONS AND BONDING Ionic bonds An ionic bond is a strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.