By S.M. Burkinshaw
Synthetic fibres are general for lots of functions, with their color being of significant advertisement value. This generally referenced ebook presents a complete account of the actual chemistry of the dyeing of artificial fibres and microfibres.
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Extra resources for Chemical Principles of Synthetic Fibre Dyeing
4, is considered to occur during prolonged dyeing. Balmforth et al.  demonstrated that there was no correlation between the solubility of CI Disperse Red 15 in three carriers and the effectiveness of the carrier in enhancing uptake of the dye on to PET fibre; similar findings have been obtained  for the dyeing of Courtelle S with CI Basic Green 4 in the presence of several carriers. Murray and Mortimer  demonstrated that carriers which have a marked solubilising effect on disperse dyes are highly effective levelling agents for disperse dyes in the HT dyeing of PET, insofar as the solubilising power of the carriers expedites dye migration during dyeing.
10) described the rate of disperse dyeing which was devoid of an initial sorption delay. Bird  suggested that in aqueous dyeing with disperse dyes, the dyebath initially behaves as a saturated solution of dye but at some later stage becomes unsaturated. Etters and McGregor  considered that disperse dyeing systems may follow one of three main types of kinetic behaviour - namely, finite, infinite and transitional. If the dyebath is initially unsaturated, then solutions of Fick's equation for finite dye baths are appropriate whereas for an initially saturated dyebath, then either infinite or transitional dyebath kinetics operate.
However, Hoffmann et al.  considered that mixed crystal formation did not occur in the 34 CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHETIC FIBRE DYEING fibre but instead suggested that isomorphous pairs of dyes interact in the dye bath as a result of which the aqueous solubility of the dyes is reduced, as first proposed by Bird and Rhyner . 10. 5%  by mass of low Mr esters, the principal oligomer being cyclic tris(ethylene terephthalate) (XVIII) with smaller quantities of a dimer, pentamer as well as traces of other compounds [190, 191].