By N.H. Ravindranath

Carbon stock requiring estimation of carbon dioxide emissions and removals in land-use different types for nationwide greenhouse fuel stock and alterations in shares of carbon in initiatives geared toward weather swap mitigation has develop into more and more vital in worldwide efforts to handle weather swap. consequently, there's a want for a guide that gives instructions and strategies required for carbon stock. Carbon stock tools guide presents particular step by step details on sampling strategies, box and laboratory measurements, software of distant sensing and GIS ideas, modeling, and calculation techniques in addition to assets of information for carbon stock. the original characteristic of this instruction manual is that it offers useful assistance on carbon stock tools for 4 different types of tasks, specifically, 1) improvement, implementation and tracking of carbon mitigation in woodland, agriculture and grassland sectors, 2) nationwide greenhouse fuel stock in agriculture, woodland, and different land-use different types, three) wooded area, grassland and agroforestry improvement and four) advertisement and group forestry roundwood creation. Carbon stock tools instruction manual is a necessary resource of connection with universities and examine associations facing weather switch, consultancy and non-governmental enterprises eager about constructing and tracking land-based mitigation tasks, donor businesses investment carbon mitigation initiatives, nationwide greenhouse fuel stock organisations, United international locations businesses and mechanisms resembling fresh improvement Mechanism and worldwide setting Facility, roundwood construction and land reclamation venture builders and bosses, and wooded area departments.

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Additional resources for Carbon Inventory Methods: Handbook for Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production Projects (Advances in Global Change Research) (Advances in Global Change Research)

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5 GtC annually (SCOPE 2006). 2 Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions The emissions of CO2 have increased continuously during the recent decades (Fig. 1). 6 GtC during the 1990s. 7 GtC for the 1990s, indicating the high level of uncertainty. Since the 1980s, natural processes of CO2 uptake by the terrestrial biosphere (the residual land sink) and by the oceans have removed about 50% of anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land-use change. Carbon uptake and storage in the terrestrial biosphere arise from the net difference between uptake due to growth of vegetation that is changes in afforestation and reforestation leading to carbon sequestration, and emissions due to heterotrophic respiration, harvest, deforestation, fire, pollution and other disturbances affecting biomass and soils (IPCC 2007a).

The accumulation of litter and deadwood pools is unlikely to be significant in the short term. If forest land is converted to plantations, soil carbon is likely to be impacted significantly because of land preparation practices. 4 Key carbon pools for carbon mitigation and other land-based projects Carbon pool Project category Project type Aboveground biomass Belowground biomass Litter Deadwood Soil Other Round land-based wood production Carbon mitigation Avoided deforestation *** *** *** *** *** Afforestation and *** ** * * *** reforestation Bioenergy plantations *** *** * *** Forest management *** * * * * for timber Grassland management * * *** Commercial plantations *** * *** Community forestry *** ** projects Agroforestry *** * * Shelterbelts *** * * Watershed ** *** Land reclamation * * *** *** = high impact, ** = medium impact, * = low impact, - = no impact or marginal impact 40 4 Carbon Pools and Measurement Frequency for Carbon Inventory part of land preparation will have significant implications for the soil carbon pool.

The carbon pools to be selected for an inventory also depend on the type of mitigation activity. Mitigation options in land-use sectors could be grouped in two ways. 24 3 Categories of Activities, Programmes and Projects Firstly, the forest sector mitigation opportunities can be broadly categorized into three groups (Brown et al. 2 Mitigation activities according to land-use categories and their features Broad mitigation Examples of mitigation Land-use category activity activities or projects Items in carbon inventory - Estimation of increase Forest land Afforestation -Community woodlots in carbon stocks in - Commercial plantations biomass and in soil - Fruit orchards - Production of fuelwood, timber, etc.

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