By Ronald F. Korcak (auth.), Sally Brown, J. Scott Angle, Lee Jacobs (eds.)

Co-utilization or mixing of residuals deals a different chance to advance items with specific features which are capable of aim particular shopper wishes. The very idea of intentionally mixing by-products means that the recycling and worthwhile reuse industries are taking a quantitative leap forward in the direction of constructing items instead of easily reusing residuals. whilst that this step presents certain possibilities, it additionally provides special demanding situations. The technological know-how linked to the precious use of 1 product would possibly not observe whilst that product is blended with one other residual. mixing of fabrics may possibly regulate the chemistry of the parts of the combination. this can provide extra merits, as on the subject of ailment suppression in composts, or current unforeseen difficulties, because the use of lime-stabilized biosolids has performed in Maryland. This e-book involves the complaints of the Beltsville Symposium. The organizers of the Symposium tried to constitution a gathering that will define either the capability merits of co-utilization in addition to matters. The editors have divided the court cases into sections that describe the sensible foundation for co-utilization of residuals in addition to the capability merits. particular issues are defined. ultimately, case experiences comprise descriptions of winning operations and knowledge that aspect result of learn regarding co-utilization fabrics. mixing of fabrics for particular pursuits has to be the focal point of any winning co-utilization attempt. The clinical implications of the combo must be made up our minds earlier than a product can be utilized properly.

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Fats and proteins may be extracted and added to feedmeaI. Fats are also removed for gelatin and glue production by boiling and steaming bones from the slaughterhouses, with bonemeal, a valuable phosphorus fertilizer, as a by-product (Jones, 1979). As a fertilizer, dried blood is a rich source of N, as much as 12% N (Minnich and Hunt, 1979). 1 N, 19 mg 1. 1 K, 220 mg 1. 1 Mg (Wells and Whitton, 1970). Effluents from meatworks used in such an irrigation study resulted in plants with increased N, P, and K in tissue (Table 14).

Yield of marketable ears of com grown with cranberry presscake were equal to those grown with manure, and greater than those grown with compost. Cranberry presscake has been successfully co-utilized with rice hulls or celite in land application experiments. One important rmding of the cranberry presscake research is the suppression of weeds (Stephen Herbert, University of Massachusetts, personal communication). Iron humate from water treatment has been treated to produce an enhanced or value-added product called granulated solubilized dolomitic iron humate, the composition of which is reported in Table 22.

Typically, yard trimmings are composted in windrows. Some of these smaller sites utilize compost turning equipment. Most, however, tum piles with front end loaders. Many simply build windrows, turn them occasionally in the beginning, and then let the piles sit for a number of months, moving material out only when there is a need for more space at the site. There are some sizable municipal operations that utilize upfront grinding equipment, turners and screens. These sites tend to be managed more intensively because of the higher throughput and thus the need to move fmished compost off the site more quickly.

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