By MD Frank H. Netter

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90 Hypothalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Olfactory System: Receptors . . . . . . . 91 Limbic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Olfactory System: Pathway . . . . . . . . 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN: CEREBRUM• The cerebral cortex represents the highest center for sensory and motor processing. In general, the frontal lobe processes motor, visual, speech, and personality modalities. The parietal lobe processes sensory information; the temporal lobe, auditory and memory modalities; and the occipital lobe, vision.

Chemical neurotransmitters are contained in synaptic vesicles, which can fuse with the presynaptic membrane, release the transmitters into the synaptic cleft, and then bind to receptors situated in the postsynaptic membrane. This synaptic transmission results in excitatory, inhibitory, or modulatory effects on the target cell. 5 STRUCTURE OF THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION• Motor axons that synapse on skeletal muscle form expanded terminals called neuromuscular junctions (motor endplates). The motor axon loses its myelin sheath and expands into a Schwann cell–invested synaptic terminal that resides within a trough in the muscle fiber.

63 Spinal Cord: Membranes and Nerve Roots . 64 Peripheral Nervous System . . . . . . . . 65 Autonomic Nervous System: Schema . . . . 66 Autonomic Nervous System: Cholinergic and Adrenergic Synapses . . . 67 Proprioception and Reflex Pathways: III . . 78 Sensory Pathways: I . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Sensory Pathways: II . . . . . . . . . . 81 Sensory Pathways: III. . . . . . . . . . 82 Visual System: Receptors. . . . . . . . . 83 Visual System: Visual Pathway .

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