By Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole

Fresh, updated chemistry textual content for the recent AQA AS Chemistry specification beginning in 2008. Emphasises How technological know-how Works and is deal to follow-on from GCSE as a hugely available textual content for complex examine.

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Additional info for AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book

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Describe the bonding in metals. Describe the structure of the magnesium crystal. Explain why metals are usually malleable and ductile. 03 Covalent bonding OBJECTIVES already from GCSE, you know •w  hen atoms share pairs of electrons, they form strong covalent bonds • s ome covalently bonded substances consist of simple molecules •o  thers, such as diamond, have giant covalent structures and after this spread you should • k now that a covalent bond involves a shared pair of electrons • know the structure of diamond bo n d i n g an d p e r io d icit y H H A shared pair of electrons A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons.

Put a funnel in the volumetric flask and pour the solution through it. Use the wash bottle to wash the beaker and rod. Transfer all the washings to the funnel. Repeat this. Wash the funnel then remove it. Add de-ionized water to the volumetric flask. As you get close to the mark, use a teat pipette to add water dropwise. Stopper the volumetric flask and swirl the flask to mix its contents thoroughly. Label the flask with your name, the date, and the contents. It is usual in an acid–base titration to put the acid into the burette.

This is isoelectronic with argon. Some d block metals form ions with a noble gas configuration but most of them do not. For example, the electron configuration of the copper(II) ion, Cu21, is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d9. • ionic bonding is the strong force of attraction between oppositely charged ions already from AS Level, you know •h  ow to represent the electron configurations of atoms and ions from Z 5 1 to Z 5 36 in terms of levels and sub-levels and after this spread you should •u  nderstand that ionic bonding involves attraction between oppositely charged ions in a lattice • k now the structure of the sodium chloride crystal Dot and cross diagrams The formation of ions is often shown by a dot and cross diagram.

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