By Susan Pollock, Reinhard Bernbeck
Archaeologies of the center East presents an leading edge creation to the archaeology of this interesting quarter and a window on either its prior and current.
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Extra info for Archaeologies of the Middle East: Critical Perspectives
This necessitated unmanageably long travels and was finally solved by building numerous temples in the capital, requiring a considerable extension of the city (Neve 1996; Seeher 2002). The southeastern border of the Hittite realm became the home of the Mittani kingdom. At the time of its greatest extension, Hurro-Mittani domination reached from the Mediterranean coast in the west across the northern Syrian steppes to the edge of the Zagros mountains in the east (Wilhelm 1982). The region was settled by a Hurrian-speaking population, although members of the elite had Indo-Iranian 22 REINHARD BERNBECK AND SUSAN POLLOCK names, and in one written contract, Indo-Iranian gods are mentioned.
Urban centers reappeared in the early second millennium. Although these Middle Bronze Age urban communities were home to a larger proportion of the population than had been the case in the Early Bronze Age of the third millennium, they, too, do not seem to have been able to dominate the rural settlements around them, which maintained a considerable degree of self-determinacy (Falconer 1994). E. A series of regional states arose during the first half of the second millennium, several of which intermittently gained substantial control over both neighboring and more distant regions through a combination of conquest and alliances.
That reached from western Anatolia to the Indus Valley in today’s Pakistan. Larger than any earlier empire, it was plagued by frequent revolts, often several at a time in widely separate parts of the empire (Briant 1999). The territory was divided into satrapies (extensive provinces), each of which was subdivided into smaller units (Wiesehöfer 1996:60–61). The rulers of a satrapy were normally from the royal family. Other unifying measures were the institutionalization of an administrative language, Aramaic, a single system of measurements, an empire-wide currency (Frye 1984:129–130), and the enlargement of the Assyrian network of royal highways (Nissen 1998:118).