By Christian V. Stevens(eds.)

Plant biomass is attracting expanding awareness as a sustainable source for large-scale construction of renewable fuels and chemical substances. even though, for you to effectively compete with petroleum, it is necessary that biomass conversion strategies are designed to lessen bills and maximize yields. Advances in pretreatment know-how are severe with the intention to boost high-yielding, cost-competitive routes to renewable fuels and chemicals.

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for organic and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals offers a entire evaluation of the at present on hand aqueous pretreatment applied sciences for cellulosic biomass, highlighting the basic chemistry and biology of every process, key attributes and boundaries, and possibilities for destiny advances.

Topics lined include:

• The value of biomass conversion to fuels
• The position of pretreatment in organic and chemical conversion of biomass
• Composition and constitution of biomass, and recalcitrance to conversion
• Fundamentals of biomass pretreatment at low, impartial and excessive pH
• Ionic liquid and organosolv pretreatments to fractionate biomass
• Comparative info for program of prime pretreatments and impact of enzyme formulations
• Physical and chemical beneficial properties of pretreated biomass
• Economics of pretreatment for organic processing
• Methods of study and enzymatic conversion of biomass streams
• Experimental  pretreatment structures from multiwell plates to pilot plant operations 

This complete reference e-book offers an authoritative resource of knowledge at the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass to help these skilled within the box to entry the most up-tp-date info at the topic.  it's going to even be worthwhile to these getting into the turning out to be box of biomass conversion.

Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–15): Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 2 Cellulosic Biofuels: significance, Recalcitrance, and Pretreatment (pages 17–21): Lee Lynd and Mark Laser
Chapter three Plant telephone partitions: fundamentals of constitution, Chemistry, Accessibility and the effect on Conversion (pages 23–38): Brian H. Davison, Jerry Parks, Mark F. Davis and Bryon S. Donohoe
Chapter four organic Conversion of crops to Fuels and chemical compounds and the results of Inhibitors (pages 39–60): Eduardo Ximenes, Youngmi Kim and Michael R. Ladisch
Chapter five Catalytic techniques for changing Lignocellulosic Carbohydrates to Fuels and chemical substances (pages 61–102): Jesse Q. Bond, David Martin Alonso and James A. Dumesic
Chapter 6 basics of Biomass Pretreatment at Low pH (pages 103–128): Heather L. Trajano and Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 7 basics of Aqueous Pretreatment of Biomass (pages 129–143): Nathan S. Mosier
Chapter eight basics of Biomass Pretreatment at excessive pH (pages 145–167): Rocio Sierra Ramirez, Mark Holtzapple and Natalia Piamonte
Chapter nine Primer on Ammonia Fiber growth Pretreatment (pages 169–200): S. P. S. Chundawat, B. Bals, T. Campbell, L. Sousa, D. Gao, M. Jin, P. Eranki, R. Garlock, F. Teymouri, Venkatesh Balan and Bruce E. Dale
Chapter 10 basics of Biomass Pretreatment via Fractionation (pages 201–222): Poulomi Sannigrahi and Arthur J. Ragauskas
Chapter eleven Ionic Liquid Pretreatment: Mechanism, functionality, and demanding situations (pages 223–238): Seema Singh and Blake A. Simmons
Chapter 12 Comparative functionality of major Pretreatment applied sciences for organic Conversion of Corn Stover, Poplar wooden, and Switchgrass to Sugars (pages 239–259): Charles E. Wyman, Bruce E. Dale, Venkatesh Balan, Richard T. Elander, Mark T. Holtzapple, Rocio Sierra Ramirez, Michael R. Ladisch, Nathan S. Mosier, Y. Y. Lee, Rajesh Gupta, Steven R. Thomas, Bonnie R. Hames, Ryan Warner and Rajeev Kumar
Chapter thirteen results of Enzyme formula and Loadings on Conversion of Biomass Pretreated via top applied sciences (pages 261–279): Rajesh Gupta and Y. Y. Lee
Chapter 14 actual and Chemical good points of Pretreated Biomass that impact Macro?/Micro?Accessibility and organic Processing (pages 281–310): Rajeev Kumar and Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 15 Economics of Pretreatment for organic Processing (pages 311–333): Ling Tao, Andy Aden and Richard T. Elander
Chapter sixteen development within the Summative research of Biomass Feedstocks for Biofuels creation (pages 335–354): Foster A. Agblevor and Junia Pereira
Chapter 17 High?Throughput NIR research of Biomass Pretreatment Streams (pages 355–368): Bonnie R. Hames
Chapter 18 Plant Biomass Characterization: program of resolution? and Solid?State NMR Spectroscopy (pages 369–390): Yunqiao Pu, Bassem Hallac and Arthur J. Ragauskas
Chapter 19 Xylooligosaccharides creation, Quantification, and Characterization in Context of Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment (pages 391–415): Qing Qing, Hongjia Li, Rajeev Kumar and Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 20 Experimental Pretreatment structures from Laboratory to Pilot Scale (pages 417–450): Richard T. Elander
Chapter 21 Experimental Enzymatic Hydrolysis structures (pages 451–469): Todd Lloyd and Chaogang Liu
Chapter 22 High?Throughput Pretreatment and Hydrolysis platforms for Screening Biomass Species in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass (pages 471–488): Jaclyn DeMartini and Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 23 Laboratory Pretreatment structures to appreciate Biomass Deconstruction (pages 489–521): Bin Yang and Melvin Tucker

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Extra resources for Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

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58. A. (2005) Production of liquid alkanes by aqueous-phase processing of biomass-derived carbohydrates. Science, 308 (5727), 1446–1450. 59. N. A. (2007) An overview of dehydration, aldol-condensation and hydrogenation processes for production of liquid alkanes from biomass-derived carbohydrates. Catalysis Today, 123 (1–4), 59–70. 60. E. (2009) ‘Cradle-to-grave’ assessment of existing lignocellulose pretreatment technologies. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 20 (3), 339–347. 61. D. (1989) Energy requirements for the size reduction of poplar and aspen wood.

90. , and Laser, M. (2005) Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass: An update. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 16, 577–583. 91. R. (2012) Recent progress in consolidated bioprocessing. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23 (3), 396–405. Introduction 15 92. G. et al. (2008) Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (37), 13769–13774. 93. A. E. (2012) The use of high-solids loadings in biomass pretreatment—a review.

Unfortunately, autohydrolysis does not achieve as high hemicellulose sugar yields as possible with stronger acids. A number of pretreatment leaders formed a Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) in 2000 and worked as a team for over a decade to compare results from the application of leading pretreatment technologies to biological conversion on a consistent basis. The pretreatments studied were based on dilute sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, neutral pH, liquid ammonia, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime [15,17,68].

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