By Thomas T. Yoshikawa, Shobita Rajagopalan

Written by means of the main experts at the subject, this reference presents easy access to crucial info on particular antibiotics, significant scientific infections, chosen pathogens, and infections in long term elderly-care facilities-summarizing the colossal array of subject matters regarding infectious ailments in older adults together with epidemiology, medical manifestations, altered host resistance, and pharmacology

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Fever in the elderly. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1996; 10:93–99. Yoshikawa TT. Epidemiology and unique aspects of aging and infectious disease. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30:291–293. 3 Impact of Age and Chronic Illness-Related Immune Dysfunction on Risk of Infectionsà Steven C. A. Key Points:  The immune response consists of innate or natural immunity (neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, natural killer cells, dendritic cells), which is the first line of defense against many microorganisms, and acquired or adaptive immunity (T and B cells) which is a second line of defense when the innate immune system cannot recognize or eliminate an infectious organism.

Furthermore, unlike C-reactive protein (CRP), PCT levels reflect the severity of illness, with PCT levels paralleling the severity of illness. It is a relatively specific marker of severe sepsis which has not been yet adequately assessed in the elderly population (28). 9. Serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP) CRP is an acute-phase protein released by the liver after the onset of inflammation or tissue damage. It is a very sensitive marker of infection, but unfortunately lacks specificity, particularly in the elderly population.

J Am Geriatr Soc 1983; 31:19–27. 11. Castle SC, Yeh M, Norman DC, Miller D, Yoshikawa TT. Fever response in the elderly: are the older truly colder? J Am Geriatr Soc 1991; 39:853–857. 12. Castle SC, Yeh M, Toledo S. Lowering the temperature criterion improves detection of infections in nursing home residents. Aging Immunol Infect Dis 1993; 4:67–76. 13. Varney SM, Manthey DE, Culpepper VE, Creedon JF Jr. A comparison of oral, tympanic, and rectal temperature measurement in the elderly. J Emerg Med 2002; 22:153–157.

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