By M. Powell Lawton PhD, Jeanne A. Teresi EdD PhD

This quantity evaluates a variety of evaluate measures in regards to older adults. The specialist individuals tackle issues resembling overview of well-being, practical incapacity (ADLs), psychological agility, getting older and character, melancholy, and soreness. whereas the tools themselves are available from different assets, this booklet discusses the suitability, strengths, and weaknesses of assorted measures and provides present details at the speedily altering, cutting-edge evaluation know-how.

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Caregiver age may be a moderator variable. Because 35% of caregivers are elderly spouses and because a large proportion of adult-child caregivers are themselves elderly, different relationships among variables may be observed for these older caregivers in contrast with younger caregivers, Lawton and Lawrence in this volume discuss the causal role of health variables. In older cohorts, do somatic symptoms represent an outcome or an exogenous variable in structural equation causal analysis? Are they indicators of the latent physical health variable or the latent psychological health variable in a measurement model?

These methods have been criti cized because the values will vary across populations differing in base rate of disorder (Spitznagel & Helzer, 1985), However, sacfa purported solutions as the use of Yule's False suffer from some of the same problems as does K (Shrout, Spitzer, & Fleiss, 1987). Similar problems are associated with measures of internal consistency such as Cronbach's a. Reliant upon average interitem correlations and, thus, degree of heterogeneity in the sample, the coefficient will vary across populations varying in item prevalences, rendering comparisons across samples problematic.

A major problem outlined by Albert (chapter 5) is the extent to which cognitive measures maintain their range. Floor effects are frequently observed among oldold cohorts, among whom the prevalence of severe dementia is higher. At issue is the extent to which we attempt to extend the sensitivity of the measures at the tails of the distribution or, alternately, abandon these measures and switch to severe impairment batteries, possibly measuring different constructs in the process (see Zandi, 1994), Measures may be too long when applied to some elderly samples.

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