By Edward F. Gilman

Good written and straightforward to appreciate, An ILLUSTRATED consultant TO PRUNING, 3rd version is a must have for someone attracted to the pruning and upkeep of timber. choked with up to date illustrations, images, and examples, this thoroughly up to date consultant is designed to assist readers comprehend and enforce the right pruning practices which are important to constructing sustainable constitution within the first 25 years of a tree's existence. assurance features a number of information regarding the demanding situations linked to pruning akin to illness prevention, root pruning, mature tree pruning, and recovery following storms. With its uncomplicated tables, lists, and techniques, this booklet is an attractive source for horticulture, panorama and tree institutions and industries and is a normal addition for botanic backyard and arboreta bookstores.

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2) A smooth transition, without a swelling, from the base of a branch onto the trunk usually indicates the collar is: a) b) c) d) present. not present. not injured. lacking trunk tissue. 3) Decay is most likely to enter the trunk if you remove a: a) b) c) d) small branch. large branch. dead branch. large codominant stem. 4) A crotch with included bark will usually NOT have: a) b) c) d) a “U” shape. decay. a branch core. a “V” shape. 5) What do you call the natural boundary that forms to help prevent decay from entering the trunk following a properly executed branch removal?

Determine where energy reserves are stored in trees. Describe the tree maintenance practices that reduce energy storage capacity. Describe compartmentalization of decay in trees. Differentiate between good compartmentalizers of decay and poor compartmentalizers. Show how certain pruning cuts can injure trees permanently. Learn how to maximize energy reserves in trees. Develop pruning strategies based on biology to maximize health. KEY WORDS Apoplast Best management practices Callus Cambium Closure crack Compartmentalization Decay Discoloration Good compartmentalizer Growth ring Phloem Photosynthesis Poor compartmentalizer Radial crack Rays Reaction zone Ring crack Root defects 41 b Starch Stomata Symplast Topping Transpiration Tyloses Walls 1, 2, 3, and 4 Woundwood Xylem 42 b CHAPTER 4 INTRODUCTION A basic understanding of tree and shrub biology can make it much easier to grasp the idea of how pruning can impact plant health.

Sugars are moved about the plant in a layer of cells called the phloem. Phloem is made up of living cells located just outside the cambium. The cambium produces the phloem in trunks, branches, and roots. The tree usually expends energy moving sugars, growth regulators, proteins, and essential elements up and down the phloem to other locations in the plant. Once sugar arrives at a location, it is used to carry out normal processes or it is stored. It is stored as starch in the network of living cell contents in the xylem called the symplast.

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