By Leslie A. Little, Elbert L. Viereck

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Older twigs smooth fir (Abies). L. Needles shiny dark green on upper surface and silvery white with many lines (stomata) on lower surface _____________ 9. Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) LL. Needles dull dark green with whitish lines (stomata) on both surfaces _____________________________________ ___________ 10. subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) CC. Leaves scalelike, usually less than 1/8 in. ) long, crowded, forming fanlike or flattened sprays. M. Leafy twigs flattened; leaves flattened and curved, not spreading _______ 11.

Or less in length; bud-scales with few or no hairs. K. Twigs with many small whitish dots (lenticels and resin); bark papery, peeling off ____________________ ___________ 50. paper birch (Betula papyrifera) KK. Twigs with few inconspicuous dots (lenticels); bark not papery. L. Winter buds blunt-pointed, dark brown; twigs coarse, gray or brown, often with dense gray hairs near tip, with short side twigs or spurs __________ ____ 66. Oregon crab apple (Malus diversifolia) LL. Winter buds sharp-pointed, purple; twigs slender, reddish purple, shiny, hairless, without short side twigs or spurs ____________________________________ __ 72.

The 46 genera of shrubs are included. Identification is to species also in the 26 genera represented in Alaska by a single native shrub species. Keys to species are included in the text for the genera with 2 or more species. For incomplete specimens the winter key to Alaska shrubs is also available. It is more detailed, including species except in willow (Salix), as well as genera. A. Plants parasitic on conifer twigs; leaves reduced to paired brownish scales _____ 55. hemlock dwarf-mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense) AA.

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