By E. Lütjen-Drecoll

The phenomenon of getting older is characterised by means of a number of degenerative alterations, which differentially have an effect on the hugely really expert buildings in the eye, akin to the merely mobile lens, the brain-derived retina and the connective tissue of the uvea and sclera. for that reason, the attention can function an exceptional version procedure to check age-related degenerative ailments. an summary article bargains with the molecular biology of alpha-B-crystallin, and unique articles provide extra perception into the distribution and attainable useful importance of nonlenticular alpha-B-crystallin. Retinal transplantation experiences that can finally result in remedy for tapetoretinal degeneration and age-related macular degeneration are mentioned. extra, components that impression the improvement of the retinal tissues are investigated. And one other evaluation examines cells of the deep lens fibers. This detailed factor is an in-depth resource of data to ophthalmologists in examine and perform.

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34 Oblinger MM, Singh LD: Reactive astrocytes in neonate brain upregulate intermediate filament gene expression in response to axonal injury. Int J Dev Neurosci 1993;11:149–156. 35 Varela HJ, Hernandez MR: Astrocyte responses in human optic nerve head with primary open-angle glaucoma. J Glaucoma 1997;6: 303–313. 36 Hernandez MR, Pena JDO: The optic nerve head in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1997;115:389–395. Furuyoshi/Furuyoshi/May/Hayreh/Alm/ Lütjen-Drecoll Ophthalmologica 2000;214:33–53 Regulation of Trabecular Meshwork Contractility Friederike Stumpff Michael Wiederholt Institut für Klinische Physiologie, Universitätsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universität Berlin, Deutschland Key Words Glaucoma W Trabecular meshwork W Smooth muscle W Aqueous humor outflow W Contractility Abstract Ample evidence supports the theory that trabecular meshwork possesses smooth-muscle-like properties.

This theory is validated by the fact that trabecular meshwork cells do indeed express calcium-dependent potassium channels in the form of maxi-K channels [121]. Interestingly, it could be shown that in trabecular meshwork, these channels are indeed insensitive to the application of external barium and should thus not be blocked by the barium necessary to evoke the spike. Electrical Characteristics of Ion Channels and Transporters In a series of experiments, we tried to determine what ionic channels and transporters are involved in regulating the membrane potential of trabecular meshwork cells and what pharmacological agents are able to modify this parameter.

In bicarbonate-free medium, both maintaining steady-state pHi and recovery after an acid load was Na+ dependent (fig. 9). The underlying mechanism could be totally blocked by amiloride. These data point to the existence of an Na+/H+ exchanger in trabecular meshwork, a transport process responsible for eliminating acid equivalents from the cytosolic compartment that can be found in a number of cells. The existence of this exchanger was confirmed by another study [113]. When cells were acidified in bicarbonate-containing medium, pHi recovery continued even after the Na+/H+ exchanger had been blocked with amiloride.

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