By Kevin M. Cleaver

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Additional info for A strategy to develop agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa and a focus for the World Bank, Volumes 23-203

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Donors can finance credit lines, technical assistance to private and cooperative banks, subsidies for banking infrastructure, and in some cases guarantee funds to share the risk of agriculture lending. In the proper policy environment, and with some assistance, private banking establishments will lend to larger farmers, to traders and to agro-business. Traders and agro-business will lend to farmers. Institutions such as cooperative credit banks, and commercial banking establishments will lend directly to small and medium farmers only if ways are found of reducing transactions costs (perhaps by more lending to groups or briefly subsidizing these costs), mobilizing rural savings (to create a local stake in banking services), and managing risk of default due to climate or commercial crisis (guarantee funds can help).

The complete backlist of publications from the World Bank is shown in the annual Index of Publications, which contains an alphabetical title list (with full ordering information) and indexes of subjects, authors, and countries and regions. C. , or from Publications, The World Bank, 66, avenue d'Iéna, 75116 Paris, France. ISSN: 0253-7494 Kevin M. Cleaver is Agricultural Division Chief in the Africa Technical Department of the World Bank. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cleaver, Kevin M.

In most countries, in-country public sector agricultural research should focus more on adaptive and applied research, as well as farming systems research. Fundamental research results should usually be brought in from abroad. Some public sector research can be done by private or university contractor. Private sector agricultural research should not be inhibited. The private sector is more likely to address the technology issues of the most profitable commercial crops, grown on large farms and plantations, when investing its own resources in research.

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